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authorDaniel Baumann <daniel.baumann@progress-linux.org>2021-10-09 07:39:48 +0000
committerDaniel Baumann <daniel.baumann@progress-linux.org>2021-10-09 07:39:48 +0000
commitd015c31bc41c33ffc0a956b5bc2795271deef2c4 (patch)
treed3c0b53871caf5f90bb4397ed72533601bb38f6d
parentInitial commit. (diff)
downloadclzip-d015c31bc41c33ffc0a956b5bc2795271deef2c4.tar.xz
clzip-d015c31bc41c33ffc0a956b5bc2795271deef2c4.zip
Adding upstream version 1.12.upstream/1.12upstream
Signed-off-by: Daniel Baumann <daniel.baumann@progress-linux.org>
-rw-r--r--AUTHORS7
-rw-r--r--COPYING338
-rw-r--r--ChangeLog158
-rw-r--r--INSTALL76
-rw-r--r--Makefile.in139
-rw-r--r--NEWS36
-rw-r--r--README139
-rw-r--r--carg_parser.c285
-rw-r--r--carg_parser.h93
-rwxr-xr-xconfigure193
-rw-r--r--decoder.c310
-rw-r--r--decoder.h315
-rw-r--r--doc/clzip.1134
-rw-r--r--doc/clzip.info1703
-rw-r--r--doc/clzip.texi1781
-rw-r--r--encoder.c615
-rw-r--r--encoder.h313
-rw-r--r--encoder_base.c205
-rw-r--r--encoder_base.h516
-rw-r--r--fast_encoder.c191
-rw-r--r--fast_encoder.h68
-rw-r--r--list.c114
-rw-r--r--lzip.h325
-rw-r--r--lzip_index.c292
-rw-r--r--lzip_index.h91
-rw-r--r--main.c1144
-rwxr-xr-xtestsuite/check.sh436
-rw-r--r--testsuite/fox.lzbin0 -> 80 bytes
-rw-r--r--testsuite/fox_bcrc.lzbin0 -> 80 bytes
-rw-r--r--testsuite/fox_crc0.lzbin0 -> 80 bytes
-rw-r--r--testsuite/fox_das46.lzbin0 -> 80 bytes
-rw-r--r--testsuite/fox_de20.lzbin0 -> 80 bytes
-rw-r--r--testsuite/fox_mes81.lzbin0 -> 80 bytes
-rw-r--r--testsuite/fox_s11.lzbin0 -> 80 bytes
-rw-r--r--testsuite/fox_v2.lzbin0 -> 80 bytes
-rw-r--r--testsuite/test.txt676
-rw-r--r--testsuite/test.txt.lzbin0 -> 7376 bytes
-rw-r--r--testsuite/test_em.txt.lzbin0 -> 14024 bytes
38 files changed, 10693 insertions, 0 deletions
diff --git a/AUTHORS b/AUTHORS
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..95949f7
--- /dev/null
+++ b/AUTHORS
@@ -0,0 +1,7 @@
+Clzip was written by Antonio Diaz Diaz.
+
+The ideas embodied in clzip are due to (at least) the following people:
+Abraham Lempel and Jacob Ziv (for the LZ algorithm), Andrey Markov (for the
+definition of Markov chains), G.N.N. Martin (for the definition of range
+encoding), Igor Pavlov (for putting all the above together in LZMA), and
+Julian Seward (for bzip2's CLI).
diff --git a/COPYING b/COPYING
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..4ad17ae
--- /dev/null
+++ b/COPYING
@@ -0,0 +1,338 @@
+ GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
+ Version 2, June 1991
+
+ Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
+ 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
+ Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
+ of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
+
+ Preamble
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+
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+ it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
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diff --git a/ChangeLog b/ChangeLog
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..9156416
--- /dev/null
+++ b/ChangeLog
@@ -0,0 +1,158 @@
+2021-01-04 Antonio Diaz Diaz <antonio@gnu.org>
+
+ * Version 1.12 released.
+ * main.c (main): Report an error if a file name is empty.
+ Make '-o' behave like '-c', but writing to file instead of stdout.
+ Make '-c' and '-o' check whether the output is a terminal only once.
+ Do not open output if input is a terminal.
+ * Replace 'decompressed', 'compressed' with 'out', 'in' in output.
+ * lzip_index.c: Improve messages for corruption in last header.
+ * main.c: Set a valid invocation_name even if argc == 0.
+ * Document extraction from tar.lz in manual, '--help', and man page.
+ * clzip.texi (Introduction): Mention plzip and tarlz as alternatives.
+ * clzip.texi: Several fixes and improvements.
+ * testsuite: Add 9 new test files.
+
+2019-01-03 Antonio Diaz Diaz <antonio@gnu.org>
+
+ * Version 1.11 released.
+ * Rename File_* to Lzip_*.
+ * lzip.h (Lzip_trailer): New function 'Lt_verify_consistency'.
+ * lzip_index.c: Detect some kinds of corrupt trailers.
+ * main.c (main): Check return value of close( infd ).
+ * main.c: Compile on DOS with DJGPP.
+ * clzip.texi: Improve descriptions of '-0..-9', '-m', and '-s'.
+ * configure: Accept appending to CFLAGS, 'CFLAGS+=OPTIONS'.
+ * INSTALL: Document use of CFLAGS+='-D __USE_MINGW_ANSI_STDIO'.
+
+2018-02-06 Antonio Diaz Diaz <antonio@gnu.org>
+
+ * Version 1.10 released.
+ * New option '--loose-trailing'.
+ * Improve corrupt header detection to HD=3.
+ * main.c: Show corrupt or truncated header in multimember file.
+ * main.c (main): Option '-S, --volume-size' now keeps input files.
+ * encoder_base.*: Adjust dictionary size for each member.
+ * Replace 'bits/byte' with inverse compression ratio in output.
+ * Show progress of decompression at verbosity level 2 (-vv).
+ * Show progress of (de)compression only if stderr is a terminal.
+ * main.c: Show final diagnostic when testing multiple files.
+ * main.c: Do not add a second .lz extension to the arg of -o.
+ * decoder.c (LZd_verify_trailer): Show stored sizes also in hex.
+ Show dictionary size at verbosity level 4 (-vvvv).
+ * clzip.texi: New chapter 'Meaning of clzip's output'.
+
+2017-04-13 Antonio Diaz Diaz <antonio@gnu.org>
+
+ * Version 1.9 released.
+ * The option '-l, --list' has been ported from lziprecover.
+ * Don't allow mixing different operations (-d, -l or -t).
+ * Compression time of option '-0' has been reduced by 6%.
+ * Compression time of options -1 to -9 has been reduced by 1%.
+ * Decompression time has been reduced by 7%.
+ * main.c: Continue testing if any input file is a terminal.
+ * main.c: Show trailing data in both hexadecimal and ASCII.
+ * lzip_index.c: Improve detection of bad dict and trailing data.
+ * lzip.h: Unify messages for bad magic, trailing data, etc.
+ * clzip.texi: Add missing chapters from lzip.texi.
+
+2016-05-13 Antonio Diaz Diaz <antonio@gnu.org>
+
+ * Version 1.8 released.
+ * New option '-a, --trailing-error'.
+ * main.c (decompress): Print up to 6 bytes of trailing data
+ when '-vvvv' is specified.
+ * decoder.c (LZd_verify_trailer): Remove test of final code.
+ * main.c (main): Delete '--output' file if infd is a terminal.
+ * main.c (main): Don't use stdin more than once.
+ * clzip.texi: New chapter 'Trailing data'.
+ * configure: Avoid warning on some shells when testing for gcc.
+ * Makefile.in: Detect the existence of install-info.
+ * check.sh: A POSIX shell is required to run the tests.
+ * check.sh: Don't check error messages.
+
+2015-07-07 Antonio Diaz Diaz <antonio@gnu.org>
+
+ * Version 1.7 released.
+ * Port fast encoder and option '-0' from lzip.
+ * Makefile.in: New targets 'install*-compress'.
+
+2014-08-28 Antonio Diaz Diaz <antonio@gnu.org>
+
+ * Version 1.6 released.
+ * Compression ratio of option '-9' has been slightly increased.
+ * main.c (close_and_set_permissions): Behave like 'cp -p'.
+ * clzip.texinfo: Rename to clzip.texi.
+ * Change license to GPL version 2 or later.
+
+2013-09-17 Antonio Diaz Diaz <antonio@gnu.org>
+
+ * Version 1.5 released.
+ * Show progress of compression at verbosity level 2 (-vv).
+ * main.c (show_header): Don't show header version.
+ * Ignore option '-n, --threads' for compatibility with plzip.
+ * configure: Options now accept a separate argument.
+
+2013-02-18 Antonio Diaz Diaz <ant_diaz@teleline.es>
+
+ * Version 1.4 released.
+ * Multi-step trials have been implemented.
+ * Compression ratio has been slightly increased.
+ * Compression time has been reduced by 10%.
+ * Decompression time has been reduced by 8%.
+ * Makefile.in: New targets 'install-as-lzip' and 'install-bin'.
+ * main.c: Use 'setmode' instead of '_setmode' on Windows and OS/2.
+ * main.c: Define 'strtoull' to 'strtoul' on Windows.
+
+2012-02-25 Antonio Diaz Diaz <ant_diaz@teleline.es>
+
+ * Version 1.3 released.
+ * main.c (close_and_set_permissions): Inability to change output
+ file attributes has been downgraded from error to warning.
+ * encoder.c (Mf_init): Return false if out of memory instead of
+ calling cleanup_and_fail.
+ * Small change in '--help' output and man page.
+ * Change quote characters in messages as advised by GNU Standards.
+ * configure: Rename 'datadir' to 'datarootdir'.
+
+2011-05-18 Antonio Diaz Diaz <ant_diaz@teleline.es>
+
+ * Version 1.2 released.
+ * New option '-F, --recompress'.
+ * main.c (decompress): Print only one status line for each
+ multimember file when only one '-v' is specified.
+ * encoder.h (Lee_update_prices): Update high length symbol prices
+ independently of the value of 'pos_state'. This gives better
+ compression for large values of '--match-length' without being
+ slower.
+ * encoder.h, encoder.c: Optimize pair price calculations, reducing
+ compression time for large values of '--match-length' by up to 6%.
+
+2011-01-11 Antonio Diaz Diaz <ant_diaz@teleline.es>
+
+ * Version 1.1 released.
+ * Code has been converted to 'C89 + long long' from C99.
+ * main.c: Fix warning about fchown return value being ignored.
+ * decoder.c: '-tvvvv' now shows compression ratio.
+ * main.c: Match length limit set by options -1 to -8 has been
+ reduced to extend range of use towards gzip. Lower numbers now
+ compress less but faster. (-1 now takes 43% less time for only 20%
+ larger compressed size).
+ Exit with status 1 if any output file exists and is skipped.
+ * Compression ratio of option '-9' has been slightly increased.
+ * main.c (open_instream): Don't show the message
+ " and '--stdout' was not specified" for directories, etc.
+ * New examples have been added to the manual.
+
+2010-04-05 Antonio Diaz Diaz <ant_diaz@teleline.es>
+
+ * Version 1.0 released.
+ * Initial release.
+ * Translated to C from the C++ source of lzip 1.10.
+
+
+Copyright (C) 2010-2021 Antonio Diaz Diaz.
+
+This file is a collection of facts, and thus it is not copyrightable,
+but just in case, you have unlimited permission to copy, distribute, and
+modify it.
diff --git a/INSTALL b/INSTALL
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..b2eeff0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/INSTALL
@@ -0,0 +1,76 @@
+Requirements
+------------
+You will need a C99 compiler. (gcc 3.3.6 or newer is recommended).
+I use gcc 6.1.0 and 4.1.2, but the code should compile with any standards
+compliant compiler.
+Gcc is available at http://gcc.gnu.org.
+
+The operating system must allow signal handlers read access to objects with
+static storage duration so that the cleanup handler for Control-C can delete
+the partial output file.
+
+
+Procedure
+---------
+1. Unpack the archive if you have not done so already:
+
+ tar -xf clzip[version].tar.lz
+or
+ lzip -cd clzip[version].tar.lz | tar -xf -
+
+This creates the directory ./clzip[version] containing the source from
+the main archive.
+
+2. Change to clzip directory and run configure.
+ (Try 'configure --help' for usage instructions).
+
+ cd clzip[version]
+ ./configure
+
+ If you are compiling on MinGW, use:
+
+ ./configure CFLAGS+='-D __USE_MINGW_ANSI_STDIO'
+
+3. Run make.
+
+ make
+
+4. Optionally, type 'make check' to run the tests that come with clzip.
+
+5. Type 'make install' to install the program and any data files and
+ documentation.
+
+ Or type 'make install-compress', which additionally compresses the
+ info manual and the man page after installation.
+ (Installing compressed docs may become the default in the future).
+
+ You can install only the program, the info manual, or the man page by
+ typing 'make install-bin', 'make install-info', or 'make install-man'
+ respectively.
+
+ Instead of 'make install', you can type 'make install-as-lzip' to
+ install the program and any data files and documentation, and link
+ the program to the name 'lzip'.
+
+
+Another way
+-----------
+You can also compile clzip into a separate directory.
+To do this, you must use a version of 'make' that supports the variable
+'VPATH', such as GNU 'make'. 'cd' to the directory where you want the
+object files and executables to go and run the 'configure' script.
+'configure' automatically checks for the source code in '.', in '..', and
+in the directory that 'configure' is in.
+
+'configure' recognizes the option '--srcdir=DIR' to control where to
+look for the sources. Usually 'configure' can determine that directory
+automatically.
+
+After running 'configure', you can run 'make' and 'make install' as
+explained above.
+
+
+Copyright (C) 2010-2021 Antonio Diaz Diaz.
+
+This file is free documentation: you have unlimited permission to copy,
+distribute, and modify it.
diff --git a/Makefile.in b/Makefile.in
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..ec41f91
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Makefile.in
@@ -0,0 +1,139 @@
+
+DISTNAME = $(pkgname)-$(pkgversion)
+INSTALL = install
+INSTALL_PROGRAM = $(INSTALL) -m 755
+INSTALL_DATA = $(INSTALL) -m 644
+INSTALL_DIR = $(INSTALL) -d -m 755
+SHELL = /bin/sh
+CAN_RUN_INSTALLINFO = $(SHELL) -c "install-info --version" > /dev/null 2>&1
+
+objs = carg_parser.o lzip_index.o list.o encoder_base.o encoder.o \
+ fast_encoder.o decoder.o main.o
+
+
+.PHONY : all install install-bin install-info install-man \
+ install-strip install-compress install-strip-compress \
+ install-bin-strip install-info-compress install-man-compress \
+ install-as-lzip \
+ uninstall uninstall-bin uninstall-info uninstall-man \
+ doc info man check dist clean distclean
+
+all : $(progname)
+
+$(progname) : $(objs)
+ $(CC) $(LDFLAGS) $(CFLAGS) -o $@ $(objs)
+
+main.o : main.c
+ $(CC) $(CPPFLAGS) $(CFLAGS) -DPROGVERSION=\"$(pkgversion)\" -c -o $@ $<
+
+%.o : %.c
+ $(CC) $(CPPFLAGS) $(CFLAGS) -c -o $@ $<
+
+$(objs) : Makefile
+carg_parser.o : carg_parser.h
+decoder.o : lzip.h decoder.h
+encoder_base.o : lzip.h encoder_base.h
+encoder.o : lzip.h encoder_base.h encoder.h
+fast_encoder.o : lzip.h encoder_base.h fast_encoder.h
+list.o : lzip.h lzip_index.h
+lzip_index.o : lzip.h lzip_index.h
+main.o : carg_parser.h lzip.h decoder.h encoder_base.h encoder.h fast_encoder.h
+
+
+doc : info man
+
+info : $(VPATH)/doc/$(pkgname).info
+
+$(VPATH)/doc/$(pkgname).info : $(VPATH)/doc/$(pkgname).texi
+ cd $(VPATH)/doc && makeinfo $(pkgname).texi
+
+man : $(VPATH)/doc/$(progname).1
+
+$(VPATH)/doc/$(progname).1 : $(progname)
+ help2man -n 'reduces the size of files' -o $@ ./$(progname)
+
+Makefile : $(VPATH)/configure $(VPATH)/Makefile.in
+ ./config.status
+
+check : all
+ @$(VPATH)/testsuite/check.sh $(VPATH)/testsuite $(pkgversion)
+
+install : install-bin install-info install-man
+install-strip : install-bin-strip install-info install-man
+install-compress : install-bin install-info-compress install-man-compress
+install-strip-compress : install-bin-strip install-info-compress install-man-compress
+
+install-bin : all
+ if [ ! -d "$(DESTDIR)$(bindir)" ] ; then $(INSTALL_DIR) "$(DESTDIR)$(bindir)" ; fi
+ $(INSTALL_PROGRAM) ./$(progname) "$(DESTDIR)$(bindir)/$(progname)"
+
+install-bin-strip : all
+ $(MAKE) INSTALL_PROGRAM='$(INSTALL_PROGRAM) -s' install-bin
+
+install-info :
+ if [ ! -d "$(DESTDIR)$(infodir)" ] ; then $(INSTALL_DIR) "$(DESTDIR)$(infodir)" ; fi
+ -rm -f "$(DESTDIR)$(infodir)/$(pkgname).info"*
+ $(INSTALL_DATA) $(VPATH)/doc/$(pkgname).info "$(DESTDIR)$(infodir)/$(pkgname).info"
+ -if $(CAN_RUN_INSTALLINFO) ; then \
+ install-info --info-dir="$(DESTDIR)$(infodir)" "$(DESTDIR)$(infodir)/$(pkgname).info" ; \
+ fi
+
+install-info-compress : install-info
+ lzip -v -9 "$(DESTDIR)$(infodir)/$(pkgname).info"
+
+install-man :
+ if [ ! -d "$(DESTDIR)$(mandir)/man1" ] ; then $(INSTALL_DIR) "$(DESTDIR)$(mandir)/man1" ; fi
+ -rm -f "$(DESTDIR)$(mandir)/man1/$(progname).1"*
+ $(INSTALL_DATA) $(VPATH)/doc/$(progname).1 "$(DESTDIR)$(mandir)/man1/$(progname).1"
+
+install-man-compress : install-man
+ lzip -v -9 "$(DESTDIR)$(mandir)/man1/$(progname).1"
+
+install-as-lzip : install
+ -rm -f "$(DESTDIR)$(bindir)/lzip"
+ cd "$(DESTDIR)$(bindir)" && ln -s $(progname) lzip
+
+uninstall : uninstall-man uninstall-info uninstall-bin
+
+uninstall-bin :
+ -rm -f "$(DESTDIR)$(bindir)/$(progname)"
+
+uninstall-info :
+ -if $(CAN_RUN_INSTALLINFO) ; then \
+ install-info --info-dir="$(DESTDIR)$(infodir)" --remove "$(DESTDIR)$(infodir)/$(pkgname).info" ; \
+ fi
+ -rm -f "$(DESTDIR)$(infodir)/$(pkgname).info"*
+
+uninstall-man :
+ -rm -f "$(DESTDIR)$(mandir)/man1/$(progname).1"*
+
+dist : doc
+ ln -sf $(VPATH) $(DISTNAME)
+ tar -Hustar --owner=root --group=root -cvf $(DISTNAME).tar \
+ $(DISTNAME)/AUTHORS \
+ $(DISTNAME)/COPYING \
+ $(DISTNAME)/ChangeLog \
+ $(DISTNAME)/INSTALL \
+ $(DISTNAME)/Makefile.in \
+ $(DISTNAME)/NEWS \
+ $(DISTNAME)/README \
+ $(DISTNAME)/configure \
+ $(DISTNAME)/doc/$(progname).1 \
+ $(DISTNAME)/doc/$(pkgname).info \
+ $(DISTNAME)/doc/$(pkgname).texi \
+ $(DISTNAME)/*.h \
+ $(DISTNAME)/*.c \
+ $(DISTNAME)/testsuite/check.sh \
+ $(DISTNAME)/testsuite/test.txt \
+ $(DISTNAME)/testsuite/fox.lz \
+ $(DISTNAME)/testsuite/fox_*.lz \
+ $(DISTNAME)/testsuite/test.txt.lz \
+ $(DISTNAME)/testsuite/test_em.txt.lz
+ rm -f $(DISTNAME)
+ lzip -v -9 $(DISTNAME).tar
+
+clean :
+ -rm -f $(progname) $(objs)
+
+distclean : clean
+ -rm -f Makefile config.status *.tar *.tar.lz
diff --git a/NEWS b/NEWS
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..216aefb
--- /dev/null
+++ b/NEWS
@@ -0,0 +1,36 @@
+Changes in version 1.12:
+
+Clzip now reports an error if a file name is empty (clzip -t "").
+
+Option '-o, --output' now behaves like '-c, --stdout', but sending the
+output unconditionally to a file instead of to standard output. See the new
+description of '-o' in the manual. This change is backwards compatible only
+when (de)compressing from standard input alone. Therefore commands like:
+ clzip -o foo.lz - bar < foo
+must now be split into:
+ clzip -o foo.lz - < foo
+ clzip bar
+or rewritten as:
+ clzip - bar < foo > foo.lz
+
+When using '-c' or '-o', clzip now checks whether the output is a terminal
+only once.
+
+Clzip now does not even open the output file if the input file is a terminal.
+
+The words 'decompressed' and 'compressed' have been replaced with the
+shorter 'out' and 'in' in the verbose output when decompressing or testing.
+
+Option '--list' now reports corruption or truncation of the last header in a
+multimenber file specifically instead of showing the generic message "Last
+member in input file is truncated or corrupt."
+
+The commands needed to extract files from a tar.lz archive have been
+documented in the manual, in the output of '--help', and in the man page.
+
+Plzip and tarlz are mentioned in the manual as alternatives for
+multiprocessors.
+
+Several fixes and improvements have been made to the manual.
+
+9 new test files have been added to the testsuite.
diff --git a/README b/README
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..1ae18a1
--- /dev/null
+++ b/README
@@ -0,0 +1,139 @@
+Description
+
+Clzip is a C language version of lzip, fully compatible with lzip 1.4 or
+newer. As clzip is written in C, it may be easier to integrate in
+applications like package managers, embedded devices, or systems lacking a
+C++ compiler.
+
+Lzip is a lossless data compressor with a user interface similar to the one
+of gzip or bzip2. Lzip uses a simplified form of the 'Lempel-Ziv-Markov
+chain-Algorithm' (LZMA) stream format, chosen to maximize safety and
+interoperability. Lzip can compress about as fast as gzip (lzip -0) or
+compress most files more than bzip2 (lzip -9). Decompression speed is
+intermediate between gzip and bzip2. Lzip is better than gzip and bzip2 from
+a data recovery perspective. Lzip has been designed, written, and tested
+with great care to replace gzip and bzip2 as the standard general-purpose
+compressed format for unix-like systems.
+
+For compressing/decompressing large files on multiprocessor machines plzip
+can be much faster than lzip at the cost of a slightly reduced compression
+ratio.
+
+For creation and manipulation of compressed tar archives tarlz can be more
+efficient than using tar and plzip because tarlz is able to keep the
+alignment between tar members and lzip members.
+
+The lzip file format is designed for data sharing and long-term archiving,
+taking into account both data integrity and decoder availability:
+
+ * The lzip format provides very safe integrity checking and some data
+ recovery means. The program lziprecover can repair bit flip errors
+ (one of the most common forms of data corruption) in lzip files, and
+ provides data recovery capabilities, including error-checked merging
+ of damaged copies of a file.
+
+ * The lzip format is as simple as possible (but not simpler). The lzip
+ manual provides the source code of a simple decompressor along with a
+ detailed explanation of how it works, so that with the only help of the
+ lzip manual it would be possible for a digital archaeologist to extract
+ the data from a lzip file long after quantum computers eventually
+ render LZMA obsolete.
+
+ * Additionally the lzip reference implementation is copylefted, which
+ guarantees that it will remain free forever.
+
+A nice feature of the lzip format is that a corrupt byte is easier to repair
+the nearer it is from the beginning of the file. Therefore, with the help of
+lziprecover, losing an entire archive just because of a corrupt byte near
+the beginning is a thing of the past.
+
+Clzip uses the same well-defined exit status values used by bzip2, which
+makes it safer than compressors returning ambiguous warning values (like
+gzip) when it is used as a back end for other programs like tar or zutils.
+
+Clzip will automatically use for each file the largest dictionary size that
+does not exceed neither the file size nor the limit given. Keep in mind that
+the decompression memory requirement is affected at compression time by the
+choice of dictionary size limit.
+
+The amount of memory required for compression is about 1 or 2 times the
+dictionary size limit (1 if input file size is less than dictionary size
+limit, else 2) plus 9 times the dictionary size really used. The option '-0'
+is special and only requires about 1.5 MiB at most. The amount of memory
+required for decompression is about 46 kB larger than the dictionary size
+really used.
+
+When compressing, clzip replaces every file given in the command line
+with a compressed version of itself, with the name "original_name.lz".
+When decompressing, clzip attempts to guess the name for the decompressed
+file from that of the compressed file as follows:
+
+filename.lz becomes filename
+filename.tlz becomes filename.tar
+anyothername becomes anyothername.out
+
+(De)compressing a file is much like copying or moving it; therefore clzip
+preserves the access and modification dates, permissions, and, when
+possible, ownership of the file just as 'cp -p' does. (If the user ID or
+the group ID can't be duplicated, the file permission bits S_ISUID and
+S_ISGID are cleared).
+
+Clzip is able to read from some types of non-regular files if either the
+option '-c' or the option '-o' is specified.
+
+If no file names are specified, clzip compresses (or decompresses) from
+standard input to standard output. Clzip will refuse to read compressed data
+from a terminal or write compressed data to a terminal, as this would be
+entirely incomprehensible and might leave the terminal in an abnormal state.
+
+Clzip will correctly decompress a file which is the concatenation of two or
+more compressed files. The result is the concatenation of the corresponding
+decompressed files. Integrity testing of concatenated compressed files is
+also supported.
+
+Clzip can produce multimember files, and lziprecover can safely recover the
+undamaged members in case of file damage. Clzip can also split the compressed
+output in volumes of a given size, even when reading from standard input.
+This allows the direct creation of multivolume compressed tar archives.
+
+Clzip is able to compress and decompress streams of unlimited size by
+automatically creating multimember output. The members so created are large,
+about 2 PiB each.
+
+In spite of its name (Lempel-Ziv-Markov chain-Algorithm), LZMA is not a
+concrete algorithm; it is more like "any algorithm using the LZMA coding
+scheme". For example, the option '-0' of lzip uses the scheme in almost the
+simplest way possible; issuing the longest match it can find, or a literal
+byte if it can't find a match. Inversely, a much more elaborated way of
+finding coding sequences of minimum size than the one currently used by lzip
+could be developed, and the resulting sequence could also be coded using the
+LZMA coding scheme.
+
+Clzip currently implements two variants of the LZMA algorithm; fast
+(used by option '-0') and normal (used by all other compression levels).
+
+The high compression of LZMA comes from combining two basic, well-proven
+compression ideas: sliding dictionaries (LZ77/78) and markov models (the
+thing used by every compression algorithm that uses a range encoder or
+similar order-0 entropy coder as its last stage) with segregation of
+contexts according to what the bits are used for.
+
+The ideas embodied in clzip are due to (at least) the following people:
+Abraham Lempel and Jacob Ziv (for the LZ algorithm), Andrey Markov (for the
+definition of Markov chains), G.N.N. Martin (for the definition of range
+encoding), Igor Pavlov (for putting all the above together in LZMA), and
+Julian Seward (for bzip2's CLI).
+
+LANGUAGE NOTE: Uncompressed = not compressed = plain data; it may never have
+been compressed. Decompressed is used to refer to data which have undergone
+the process of decompression.
+
+
+Copyright (C) 2010-2021 Antonio Diaz Diaz.
+
+This file is free documentation: you have unlimited permission to copy,
+distribute, and modify it.
+
+The file Makefile.in is a data file used by configure to produce the
+Makefile. It has the same copyright owner and permissions that configure
+itself.
diff --git a/carg_parser.c b/carg_parser.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..d0c05d5
--- /dev/null
+++ b/carg_parser.c
@@ -0,0 +1,285 @@
+/* Arg_parser - POSIX/GNU command line argument parser. (C version)
+ Copyright (C) 2006-2021 Antonio Diaz Diaz.
+
+ This library is free software. Redistribution and use in source and
+ binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided
+ that the following conditions are met:
+
+ 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ notice, this list of conditions, and the following disclaimer.
+
+ 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ notice, this list of conditions, and the following disclaimer in the
+ documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+
+ This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
+*/
+
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <string.h>
+
+#include "carg_parser.h"
+
+
+/* assure at least a minimum size for buffer 'buf' */
+static void * ap_resize_buffer( void * buf, const int min_size )
+ {
+ if( buf ) buf = realloc( buf, min_size );
+ else buf = malloc( min_size );
+ return buf;
+ }
+
+
+static char push_back_record( struct Arg_parser * const ap,
+ const int code, const char * const argument )
+ {
+ const int len = strlen( argument );
+ struct ap_Record * p;
+ void * tmp = ap_resize_buffer( ap->data,
+ ( ap->data_size + 1 ) * sizeof (struct ap_Record) );
+ if( !tmp ) return 0;
+ ap->data = (struct ap_Record *)tmp;
+ p = &(ap->data[ap->data_size]);
+ p->code = code;
+ p->argument = 0;
+ tmp = ap_resize_buffer( p->argument, len + 1 );
+ if( !tmp ) return 0;
+ p->argument = (char *)tmp;
+ strncpy( p->argument, argument, len + 1 );
+ ++ap->data_size;
+ return 1;
+ }
+
+
+static char add_error( struct Arg_parser * const ap, const char * const msg )
+ {
+ const int len = strlen( msg );
+ void * tmp = ap_resize_buffer( ap->error, ap->error_size + len + 1 );
+ if( !tmp ) return 0;
+ ap->error = (char *)tmp;
+ strncpy( ap->error + ap->error_size, msg, len + 1 );
+ ap->error_size += len;
+ return 1;
+ }
+
+
+static void free_data( struct Arg_parser * const ap )
+ {
+ int i;
+ for( i = 0; i < ap->data_size; ++i ) free( ap->data[i].argument );
+ if( ap->data ) { free( ap->data ); ap->data = 0; }
+ ap->data_size = 0;
+ }
+
+
+static char parse_long_option( struct Arg_parser * const ap,
+ const char * const opt, const char * const arg,
+ const struct ap_Option options[],
+ int * const argindp )
+ {
+ unsigned len;
+ int index = -1, i;
+ char exact = 0, ambig = 0;
+
+ for( len = 0; opt[len+2] && opt[len+2] != '='; ++len ) ;
+
+ /* Test all long options for either exact match or abbreviated matches. */
+ for( i = 0; options[i].code != 0; ++i )
+ if( options[i].name && strncmp( options[i].name, &opt[2], len ) == 0 )
+ {
+ if( strlen( options[i].name ) == len ) /* Exact match found */
+ { index = i; exact = 1; break; }
+ else if( index < 0 ) index = i; /* First nonexact match found */
+ else if( options[index].code != options[i].code ||
+ options[index].has_arg != options[i].has_arg )
+ ambig = 1; /* Second or later nonexact match found */
+ }
+
+ if( ambig && !exact )
+ {
+ add_error( ap, "option '" ); add_error( ap, opt );
+ add_error( ap, "' is ambiguous" );
+ return 1;
+ }
+
+ if( index < 0 ) /* nothing found */
+ {
+ add_error( ap, "unrecognized option '" ); add_error( ap, opt );
+ add_error( ap, "'" );
+ return 1;
+ }
+
+ ++*argindp;
+
+ if( opt[len+2] ) /* '--<long_option>=<argument>' syntax */
+ {
+ if( options[index].has_arg == ap_no )
+ {
+ add_error( ap, "option '--" ); add_error( ap, options[index].name );
+ add_error( ap, "' doesn't allow an argument" );
+ return 1;
+ }
+ if( options[index].has_arg == ap_yes && !opt[len+3] )
+ {
+ add_error( ap, "option '--" ); add_error( ap, options[index].name );
+ add_error( ap, "' requires an argument" );
+ return 1;
+ }
+ return push_back_record( ap, options[index].code, &opt[len+3] );
+ }
+
+ if( options[index].has_arg == ap_yes )
+ {
+ if( !arg || !arg[0] )
+ {
+ add_error( ap, "option '--" ); add_error( ap, options[index].name );
+ add_error( ap, "' requires an argument" );
+ return 1;
+ }
+ ++*argindp;
+ return push_back_record( ap, options[index].code, arg );
+ }
+
+ return push_back_record( ap, options[index].code, "" );
+ }
+
+
+static char parse_short_option( struct Arg_parser * const ap,
+ const char * const opt, const char * const arg,
+ const struct ap_Option options[],
+ int * const argindp )
+ {
+ int cind = 1; /* character index in opt */
+
+ while( cind > 0 )
+ {
+ int index = -1, i;
+ const unsigned char code = opt[cind];
+ char code_str[2];
+ code_str[0] = code; code_str[1] = 0;
+
+ if( code != 0 )
+ for( i = 0; options[i].code; ++i )
+ if( code == options[i].code )
+ { index = i; break; }
+
+ if( index < 0 )
+ {
+ add_error( ap, "invalid option -- '" ); add_error( ap, code_str );
+ add_error( ap, "'" );
+ return 1;
+ }
+
+ if( opt[++cind] == 0 ) { ++*argindp; cind = 0; } /* opt finished */
+
+ if( options[index].has_arg != ap_no && cind > 0 && opt[cind] )
+ {
+ if( !push_back_record( ap, code, &opt[cind] ) ) return 0;
+ ++*argindp; cind = 0;
+ }
+ else if( options[index].has_arg == ap_yes )
+ {
+ if( !arg || !arg[0] )
+ {
+ add_error( ap, "option requires an argument -- '" );
+ add_error( ap, code_str ); add_error( ap, "'" );
+ return 1;
+ }
+ ++*argindp; cind = 0;
+ if( !push_back_record( ap, code, arg ) ) return 0;
+ }
+ else if( !push_back_record( ap, code, "" ) ) return 0;
+ }
+ return 1;
+ }
+
+
+char ap_init( struct Arg_parser * const ap,
+ const int argc, const char * const argv[],
+ const struct ap_Option options[], const char in_order )
+ {
+ const char ** non_options = 0; /* skipped non-options */
+ int non_options_size = 0; /* number of skipped non-options */
+ int argind = 1; /* index in argv */
+ int i;
+
+ ap->data = 0;
+ ap->error = 0;
+ ap->data_size = 0;
+ ap->error_size = 0;
+ if( argc < 2 || !argv || !options ) return 1;
+
+ while( argind < argc )
+ {
+ const unsigned char ch1 = argv[argind][0];
+ const unsigned char ch2 = ch1 ? argv[argind][1] : 0;
+
+ if( ch1 == '-' && ch2 ) /* we found an option */
+ {
+ const char * const opt = argv[argind];
+ const char * const arg = ( argind + 1 < argc ) ? argv[argind+1] : 0;
+ if( ch2 == '-' )
+ {
+ if( !argv[argind][2] ) { ++argind; break; } /* we found "--" */
+ else if( !parse_long_option( ap, opt, arg, options, &argind ) ) return 0;
+ }
+ else if( !parse_short_option( ap, opt, arg, options, &argind ) ) return 0;
+ if( ap->error ) break;
+ }
+ else
+ {
+ if( in_order )
+ { if( !push_back_record( ap, 0, argv[argind++] ) ) return 0; }
+ else
+ {
+ void * tmp = ap_resize_buffer( non_options,
+ ( non_options_size + 1 ) * sizeof *non_options );
+ if( !tmp ) return 0;
+ non_options = (const char **)tmp;
+ non_options[non_options_size++] = argv[argind++];
+ }
+ }
+ }
+ if( ap->error ) free_data( ap );
+ else
+ {
+ for( i = 0; i < non_options_size; ++i )
+ if( !push_back_record( ap, 0, non_options[i] ) ) return 0;
+ while( argind < argc )
+ if( !push_back_record( ap, 0, argv[argind++] ) ) return 0;
+ }
+ if( non_options ) free( non_options );
+ return 1;
+ }
+
+
+void ap_free( struct Arg_parser * const ap )
+ {
+ free_data( ap );
+ if( ap->error ) { free( ap->error ); ap->error = 0; }
+ ap->error_size = 0;
+ }
+
+
+const char * ap_error( const struct Arg_parser * const ap )
+ { return ap->error; }
+
+
+int ap_arguments( const struct Arg_parser * const ap )
+ { return ap->data_size; }
+
+
+int ap_code( const struct Arg_parser * const ap, const int i )
+ {
+ if( i >= 0 && i < ap_arguments( ap ) ) return ap->data[i].code;
+ else return 0;
+ }
+
+
+const char * ap_argument( const struct Arg_parser * const ap, const int i )
+ {
+ if( i >= 0 && i < ap_arguments( ap ) ) return ap->data[i].argument;
+ else return "";
+ }
diff --git a/carg_parser.h b/carg_parser.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..c5f2352
--- /dev/null
+++ b/carg_parser.h
@@ -0,0 +1,93 @@
+/* Arg_parser - POSIX/GNU command line argument parser. (C version)
+ Copyright (C) 2006-2021 Antonio Diaz Diaz.
+
+ This library is free software. Redistribution and use in source and
+ binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided
+ that the following conditions are met:
+
+ 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ notice, this list of conditions, and the following disclaimer.
+
+ 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ notice, this list of conditions, and the following disclaimer in the
+ documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+
+ This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
+*/
+
+/* Arg_parser reads the arguments in 'argv' and creates a number of
+ option codes, option arguments, and non-option arguments.
+
+ In case of error, 'ap_error' returns a non-null pointer to an error
+ message.
+
+ 'options' is an array of 'struct ap_Option' terminated by an element
+ containing a code which is zero. A null name means a short-only
+ option. A code value outside the unsigned char range means a
+ long-only option.
+
+ Arg_parser normally makes it appear as if all the option arguments
+ were specified before all the non-option arguments for the purposes
+ of parsing, even if the user of your program intermixed option and
+ non-option arguments. If you want the arguments in the exact order
+ the user typed them, call 'ap_init' with 'in_order' = true.
+
+ The argument '--' terminates all options; any following arguments are
+ treated as non-option arguments, even if they begin with a hyphen.
+
+ The syntax for optional option arguments is '-<short_option><argument>'
+ (without whitespace), or '--<long_option>=<argument>'.
+*/
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" {
+#endif
+
+enum ap_Has_arg { ap_no, ap_yes, ap_maybe };
+
+struct ap_Option
+ {
+ int code; /* Short option letter or code ( code != 0 ) */
+ const char * name; /* Long option name (maybe null) */
+ enum ap_Has_arg has_arg;
+ };
+
+
+struct ap_Record
+ {
+ int code;
+ char * argument;
+ };
+
+
+struct Arg_parser
+ {
+ struct ap_Record * data;
+ char * error;
+ int data_size;
+ int error_size;
+ };
+
+
+char ap_init( struct Arg_parser * const ap,
+ const int argc, const char * const argv[],
+ const struct ap_Option options[], const char in_order );
+
+void ap_free( struct Arg_parser * const ap );
+
+const char * ap_error( const struct Arg_parser * const ap );
+
+/* The number of arguments parsed. May be different from argc. */
+int ap_arguments( const struct Arg_parser * const ap );
+
+/* If ap_code( i ) is 0, ap_argument( i ) is a non-option.
+ Else ap_argument( i ) is the option's argument (or empty). */
+int ap_code( const struct Arg_parser * const ap, const int i );
+
+const char * ap_argument( const struct Arg_parser * const ap, const int i );
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+}
+#endif
diff --git a/configure b/configure
new file mode 100755
index 0000000..7619894
--- /dev/null
+++ b/configure
@@ -0,0 +1,193 @@
+#! /bin/sh
+# configure script for Clzip - LZMA lossless data compressor
+# Copyright (C) 2010-2021 Antonio Diaz Diaz.
+#
+# This configure script is free software: you have unlimited permission
+# to copy, distribute, and modify it.
+
+pkgname=clzip
+pkgversion=1.12
+progname=clzip
+srctrigger=doc/${pkgname}.texi
+
+# clear some things potentially inherited from environment.
+LC_ALL=C
+export LC_ALL
+srcdir=
+prefix=/usr/local
+exec_prefix='$(prefix)'
+bindir='$(exec_prefix)/bin'
+datarootdir='$(prefix)/share'
+infodir='$(datarootdir)/info'
+mandir='$(datarootdir)/man'
+CC=gcc
+CPPFLAGS=
+CFLAGS='-Wall -W -O2'
+LDFLAGS=
+
+# checking whether we are using GNU C.
+/bin/sh -c "${CC} --version" > /dev/null 2>&1 || { CC=cc ; CFLAGS=-O2 ; }
+
+# Loop over all args
+args=
+no_create=
+while [ $# != 0 ] ; do
+
+ # Get the first arg, and shuffle
+ option=$1 ; arg2=no
+ shift
+
+ # Add the argument quoted to args
+ if [ -z "${args}" ] ; then args="\"${option}\""
+ else args="${args} \"${option}\"" ; fi
+
+ # Split out the argument for options that take them
+ case ${option} in
+ *=*) optarg=`echo "${option}" | sed -e 's,^[^=]*=,,;s,/$,,'` ;;
+ esac
+
+ # Process the options
+ case ${option} in
+ --help | -h)
+ echo "Usage: $0 [OPTION]... [VAR=VALUE]..."
+ echo
+ echo "To assign makefile variables (e.g., CC, CFLAGS...), specify them as"
+ echo "arguments to configure in the form VAR=VALUE."
+ echo
+ echo "Options and variables: [defaults in brackets]"
+ echo " -h, --help display this help and exit"
+ echo " -V, --version output version information and exit"
+ echo " --srcdir=DIR find the sources in DIR [. or ..]"
+ echo " --prefix=DIR install into DIR [${prefix}]"
+ echo " --exec-prefix=DIR base directory for arch-dependent files [${exec_prefix}]"
+ echo " --bindir=DIR user executables directory [${bindir}]"
+ echo " --datarootdir=DIR base directory for doc and data [${datarootdir}]"
+ echo " --infodir=DIR info files directory [${infodir}]"
+ echo " --mandir=DIR man pages directory [${mandir}]"
+ echo " CC=COMPILER C compiler to use [${CC}]"
+ echo " CPPFLAGS=OPTIONS command line options for the preprocessor [${CPPFLAGS}]"
+ echo " CFLAGS=OPTIONS command line options for the C compiler [${CFLAGS}]"
+ echo " CFLAGS+=OPTIONS append options to the current value of CFLAGS"
+ echo " LDFLAGS=OPTIONS command line options for the linker [${LDFLAGS}]"
+ echo
+ exit 0 ;;
+ --version | -V)
+ echo "Configure script for ${pkgname} version ${pkgversion}"
+ exit 0 ;;
+ --srcdir) srcdir=$1 ; arg2=yes ;;
+ --prefix) prefix=$1 ; arg2=yes ;;
+ --exec-prefix) exec_prefix=$1 ; arg2=yes ;;
+ --bindir) bindir=$1 ; arg2=yes ;;
+ --datarootdir) datarootdir=$1 ; arg2=yes ;;
+ --infodir) infodir=$1 ; arg2=yes ;;
+ --mandir) mandir=$1 ; arg2=yes ;;
+
+ --srcdir=*) srcdir=${optarg} ;;
+ --prefix=*) prefix=${optarg} ;;
+ --exec-prefix=*) exec_prefix=${optarg} ;;
+ --bindir=*) bindir=${optarg} ;;
+ --datarootdir=*) datarootdir=${optarg} ;;
+ --infodir=*) infodir=${optarg} ;;
+ --mandir=*) mandir=${optarg} ;;
+ --no-create) no_create=yes ;;
+
+ CC=*) CC=${optarg} ;;
+ CPPFLAGS=*) CPPFLAGS=${optarg} ;;
+ CFLAGS=*) CFLAGS=${optarg} ;;
+ CFLAGS+=*) CFLAGS="${CFLAGS} ${optarg}" ;;
+ LDFLAGS=*) LDFLAGS=${optarg} ;;
+
+ --*)
+ echo "configure: WARNING: unrecognized option: '${option}'" 1>&2 ;;
+ *=* | *-*-*) ;;
+ *)
+ echo "configure: unrecognized option: '${option}'" 1>&2
+ echo "Try 'configure --help' for more information." 1>&2
+ exit 1 ;;
+ esac
+
+ # Check if the option took a separate argument
+ if [ "${arg2}" = yes ] ; then
+ if [ $# != 0 ] ; then args="${args} \"$1\"" ; shift
+ else echo "configure: Missing argument to '${option}'" 1>&2
+ exit 1
+ fi
+ fi
+done
+
+# Find the source files, if location was not specified.
+srcdirtext=
+if [ -z "${srcdir}" ] ; then
+ srcdirtext="or . or .." ; srcdir=.
+ if [ ! -r "${srcdir}/${srctrigger}" ] ; then srcdir=.. ; fi
+ if [ ! -r "${srcdir}/${srctrigger}" ] ; then
+ ## the sed command below emulates the dirname command
+ srcdir=`echo "$0" | sed -e 's,[^/]*$,,;s,/$,,;s,^$,.,'`
+ fi
+fi
+
+if [ ! -r "${srcdir}/${srctrigger}" ] ; then
+ echo "configure: Can't find sources in ${srcdir} ${srcdirtext}" 1>&2
+ echo "configure: (At least ${srctrigger} is missing)." 1>&2
+ exit 1
+fi
+
+# Set srcdir to . if that's what it is.
+if [ "`pwd`" = "`cd "${srcdir}" ; pwd`" ] ; then srcdir=. ; fi
+
+echo
+if [ -z "${no_create}" ] ; then
+ echo "creating config.status"
+ rm -f config.status
+ cat > config.status << EOF
+#! /bin/sh
+# This file was generated automatically by configure. Don't edit.
+# Run this file to recreate the current configuration.
+#
+# This script is free software: you have unlimited permission
+# to copy, distribute, and modify it.
+
+exec /bin/sh $0 ${args} --no-create
+EOF
+ chmod +x config.status
+fi
+
+echo "creating Makefile"
+echo "VPATH = ${srcdir}"
+echo "prefix = ${prefix}"
+echo "exec_prefix = ${exec_prefix}"
+echo "bindir = ${bindir}"
+echo "datarootdir = ${datarootdir}"
+echo "infodir = ${infodir}"
+echo "mandir = ${mandir}"
+echo "CC = ${CC}"
+echo "CPPFLAGS = ${CPPFLAGS}"
+echo "CFLAGS = ${CFLAGS}"
+echo "LDFLAGS = ${LDFLAGS}"
+rm -f Makefile
+cat > Makefile << EOF
+# Makefile for Clzip - LZMA lossless data compressor
+# Copyright (C) 2010-2021 Antonio Diaz Diaz.
+# This file was generated automatically by configure. Don't edit.
+#
+# This Makefile is free software: you have unlimited permission
+# to copy, distribute, and modify it.
+
+pkgname = ${pkgname}
+pkgversion = ${pkgversion}
+progname = ${progname}
+VPATH = ${srcdir}
+prefix = ${prefix}
+exec_prefix = ${exec_prefix}
+bindir = ${bindir}
+datarootdir = ${datarootdir}
+infodir = ${infodir}
+mandir = ${mandir}
+CC = ${CC}
+CPPFLAGS = ${CPPFLAGS}
+CFLAGS = ${CFLAGS}
+LDFLAGS = ${LDFLAGS}
+EOF
+cat "${srcdir}/Makefile.in" >> Makefile
+
+echo "OK. Now you can run make."
diff --git a/decoder.c b/decoder.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..902c0e4
--- /dev/null
+++ b/decoder.c
@@ -0,0 +1,310 @@
+/* Clzip - LZMA lossless data compressor
+ Copyright (C) 2010-2021 Antonio Diaz Diaz.
+
+ This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ the Free Software Foundation, either version 2 of the License, or
+ (at your option) any later version.
+
+ This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
+ GNU General Public License for more details.
+
+ You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+*/
+
+#define _FILE_OFFSET_BITS 64
+
+#include <errno.h>
+#include <stdbool.h>
+#include <stdint.h>
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+
+#include "lzip.h"
+#include "decoder.h"
+
+
+/* Returns the number of bytes really read.
+ If (returned value < size) and (errno == 0), means EOF was reached.
+*/
+int readblock( const int fd, uint8_t * const buf, const int size )
+ {
+ int sz = 0;
+ errno = 0;
+ while( sz < size )
+ {
+ const int n = read( fd, buf + sz, size - sz );
+ if( n > 0 ) sz += n;
+ else if( n == 0 ) break; /* EOF */
+ else if( errno != EINTR ) break;
+ errno = 0;
+ }
+ return sz;
+ }
+
+
+/* Returns the number of bytes really written.
+ If (returned value < size), it is always an error.
+*/
+int writeblock( const int fd, const uint8_t * const buf, const int size )
+ {
+ int sz = 0;
+ errno = 0;
+ while( sz < size )
+ {
+ const int n = write( fd, buf + sz, size - sz );
+ if( n > 0 ) sz += n;
+ else if( n < 0 && errno != EINTR ) break;
+ errno = 0;
+ }
+ return sz;
+ }
+
+
+bool Rd_read_block( struct Range_decoder * const rdec )
+ {
+ if( !rdec->at_stream_end )
+ {
+ rdec->stream_pos = readblock( rdec->infd, rdec->buffer, rd_buffer_size );
+ if( rdec->stream_pos != rd_buffer_size && errno )
+ { show_error( "Read error", errno, false ); cleanup_and_fail( 1 ); }
+ rdec->at_stream_end = ( rdec->stream_pos < rd_buffer_size );
+ rdec->partial_member_pos += rdec->pos;
+ rdec->pos = 0;
+ show_dprogress( 0, 0, 0, 0 );
+ }
+ return rdec->pos < rdec->stream_pos;
+ }
+
+
+void LZd_flush_data( struct LZ_decoder * const d )
+ {
+ if( d->pos > d->stream_pos )
+ {
+ const int size = d->pos - d->stream_pos;
+ CRC32_update_buf( &d->crc, d->buffer + d->stream_pos, size );
+ if( d->outfd >= 0 &&
+ writeblock( d->outfd, d->buffer + d->stream_pos, size ) != size )
+ { show_error( "Write error", errno, false ); cleanup_and_fail( 1 ); }
+ if( d->pos >= d->dictionary_size )
+ { d->partial_data_pos += d->pos; d->pos = 0; d->pos_wrapped = true; }
+ d->stream_pos = d->pos;
+ }
+ }
+
+
+static bool LZd_verify_trailer( struct LZ_decoder * const d,
+ struct Pretty_print * const pp )
+ {
+ Lzip_trailer trailer;
+ int size = Rd_read_data( d->rdec, trailer, Lt_size );
+ const unsigned long long data_size = LZd_data_position( d );
+ const unsigned long long member_size = Rd_member_position( d->rdec );
+ unsigned td_crc;
+ unsigned long long td_size, tm_size;
+ bool error = false;
+
+ if( size < Lt_size )
+ {
+ error = true;
+ if( verbosity >= 0 )
+ {
+ Pp_show_msg( pp, 0 );
+ fprintf( stderr, "Trailer truncated at trailer position %d;"
+ " some checks may fail.\n", size );
+ }
+ while( size < Lt_size ) trailer[size++] = 0;
+ }
+
+ td_crc = Lt_get_data_crc( trailer );
+ if( td_crc != LZd_crc( d ) )
+ {
+ error = true;
+ if( verbosity >= 0 )
+ {
+ Pp_show_msg( pp, 0 );
+ fprintf( stderr, "CRC mismatch; stored %08X, computed %08X\n",
+ td_crc, LZd_crc( d ) );
+ }
+ }
+ td_size = Lt_get_data_size( trailer );
+ if( td_size != data_size )
+ {
+ error = true;
+ if( verbosity >= 0 )
+ {
+ Pp_show_msg( pp, 0 );
+ fprintf( stderr, "Data size mismatch; stored %llu (0x%llX), computed %llu (0x%llX)\n",
+ td_size, td_size, data_size, data_size );
+ }
+ }
+ tm_size = Lt_get_member_size( trailer );
+ if( tm_size != member_size )
+ {
+ error = true;
+ if( verbosity >= 0 )
+ {
+ Pp_show_msg( pp, 0 );
+ fprintf( stderr, "Member size mismatch; stored %llu (0x%llX), computed %llu (0x%llX)\n",
+ tm_size, tm_size, member_size, member_size );
+ }
+ }
+ if( error ) return false;
+ if( verbosity >= 2 )
+ {
+ if( verbosity >= 4 ) show_header( d->dictionary_size );
+ if( data_size == 0 || member_size == 0 )
+ fputs( "no data compressed. ", stderr );
+ else
+ fprintf( stderr, "%6.3f:1, %5.2f%% ratio, %5.2f%% saved. ",
+ (double)data_size / member_size,
+ ( 100.0 * member_size ) / data_size,
+ 100.0 - ( ( 100.0 * member_size ) / data_size ) );
+ if( verbosity >= 4 ) fprintf( stderr, "CRC %08X, ", td_crc );
+ if( verbosity >= 3 )
+ fprintf( stderr, "%9llu out, %8llu in. ", data_size, member_size );
+ }
+ return true;
+ }
+
+
+/* Return value: 0 = OK, 1 = decoder error, 2 = unexpected EOF,
+ 3 = trailer error, 4 = unknown marker found. */
+int LZd_decode_member( struct LZ_decoder * const d,
+ struct Pretty_print * const pp )
+ {
+ struct Range_decoder * const rdec = d->rdec;
+ Bit_model bm_literal[1<<literal_context_bits][0x300];
+ Bit_model bm_match[states][pos_states];
+ Bit_model bm_rep[states];
+ Bit_model bm_rep0[states];
+ Bit_model bm_rep1[states];
+ Bit_model bm_rep2[states];
+ Bit_model bm_len[states][pos_states];
+ Bit_model bm_dis_slot[len_states][1<<dis_slot_bits];
+ Bit_model bm_dis[modeled_distances-end_dis_model+1];
+ Bit_model bm_align[dis_align_size];
+ struct Len_model match_len_model;
+ struct Len_model rep_len_model;
+ unsigned rep0 = 0; /* rep[0-3] latest four distances */
+ unsigned rep1 = 0; /* used for efficient coding of */
+ unsigned rep2 = 0; /* repeated distances */
+ unsigned rep3 = 0;
+ State state = 0;
+
+ Bm_array_init( bm_literal[0], (1 << literal_context_bits) * 0x300 );
+ Bm_array_init( bm_match[0], states * pos_states );
+ Bm_array_init( bm_rep, states );
+ Bm_array_init( bm_rep0, states );
+ Bm_array_init( bm_rep1, states );
+ Bm_array_init( bm_rep2, states );
+ Bm_array_init( bm_len[0], states * pos_states );
+ Bm_array_init( bm_dis_slot[0], len_states * (1 << dis_slot_bits) );
+ Bm_array_init( bm_dis, modeled_distances - end_dis_model + 1 );
+ Bm_array_init( bm_align, dis_align_size );
+ Lm_init( &match_len_model );
+ Lm_init( &rep_len_model );
+
+ Rd_load( rdec );
+ while( !Rd_finished( rdec ) )
+ {
+ int len;
+ const int pos_state = LZd_data_position( d ) & pos_state_mask;
+ if( Rd_decode_bit( rdec, &bm_match[state][pos_state] ) == 0 ) /* 1st bit */
+ {
+ /* literal byte */
+ Bit_model * const bm = bm_literal[get_lit_state(LZd_peek_prev( d ))];
+ if( St_is_char( state ) )
+ {
+ state -= ( state < 4 ) ? state : 3;
+ LZd_put_byte( d, Rd_decode_tree8( rdec, bm ) );
+ }
+ else
+ {
+ state -= ( state < 10 ) ? 3 : 6;
+ LZd_put_byte( d, Rd_decode_matched( rdec, bm, LZd_peek( d, rep0 ) ) );
+ }
+ continue;
+ }
+ /* match or repeated match */
+ if( Rd_decode_bit( rdec, &bm_rep[state] ) != 0 ) /* 2nd bit */
+ {
+ if( Rd_decode_bit( rdec, &bm_rep0[state] ) == 0 ) /* 3rd bit */
+ {
+ if( Rd_decode_bit( rdec, &bm_len[state][pos_state] ) == 0 ) /* 4th bit */
+ { state = St_set_short_rep( state );
+ LZd_put_byte( d, LZd_peek( d, rep0 ) ); continue; }
+ }
+ else
+ {
+ unsigned distance;
+ if( Rd_decode_bit( rdec, &bm_rep1[state] ) == 0 ) /* 4th bit */
+ distance = rep1;
+ else
+ {
+ if( Rd_decode_bit( rdec, &bm_rep2[state] ) == 0 ) /* 5th bit */
+ distance = rep2;
+ else
+ { distance = rep3; rep3 = rep2; }
+ rep2 = rep1;
+ }
+ rep1 = rep0;
+ rep0 = distance;
+ }
+ state = St_set_rep( state );
+ len = min_match_len + Rd_decode_len( rdec, &rep_len_model, pos_state );
+ }
+ else /* match */
+ {
+ unsigned distance;
+ len = min_match_len + Rd_decode_len( rdec, &match_len_model, pos_state );
+ distance = Rd_decode_tree6( rdec, bm_dis_slot[get_len_state(len)] );
+ if( distance >= start_dis_model )
+ {
+ const unsigned dis_slot = distance;
+ const int direct_bits = ( dis_slot >> 1 ) - 1;
+ distance = ( 2 | ( dis_slot & 1 ) ) << direct_bits;
+ if( dis_slot < end_dis_model )
+ distance += Rd_decode_tree_reversed( rdec,
+ bm_dis + ( distance - dis_slot ), direct_bits );
+ else
+ {
+ distance +=
+ Rd_decode( rdec, direct_bits - dis_align_bits ) << dis_align_bits;
+ distance += Rd_decode_tree_reversed4( rdec, bm_align );
+ if( distance == 0xFFFFFFFFU ) /* marker found */
+ {
+ Rd_normalize( rdec );
+ LZd_flush_data( d );
+ if( len == min_match_len ) /* End Of Stream marker */
+ {
+ if( LZd_verify_trailer( d, pp ) ) return 0; else return 3;
+ }
+ if( len == min_match_len + 1 ) /* Sync Flush marker */
+ {
+ Rd_load( rdec ); continue;
+ }
+ if( verbosity >= 0 )
+ {
+ Pp_show_msg( pp, 0 );
+ fprintf( stderr, "Unsupported marker code '%d'\n", len );
+ }
+ return 4;
+ }
+ }
+ }
+ rep3 = rep2; rep2 = rep1; rep1 = rep0; rep0 = distance;
+ state = St_set_match( state );
+ if( rep0 >= d->dictionary_size || ( rep0 >= d->pos && !d->pos_wrapped ) )
+ { LZd_flush_data( d ); return 1; }
+ }
+ LZd_copy_block( d, rep0, len );
+ }
+ LZd_flush_data( d );
+ return 2;
+ }
diff --git a/decoder.h b/decoder.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..a8d8eab
--- /dev/null
+++ b/decoder.h
@@ -0,0 +1,315 @@
+/* Clzip - LZMA lossless data compressor
+ Copyright (C) 2010-2021 Antonio Diaz Diaz.
+
+ This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ the Free Software Foundation, either version 2 of the License, or
+ (at your option) any later version.
+
+ This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
+ GNU General Public License for more details.
+
+ You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+*/
+
+enum { rd_buffer_size = 16384 };
+
+struct Range_decoder
+ {
+ unsigned long long partial_member_pos;
+ uint8_t * buffer; /* input buffer */
+ int pos; /* current pos in buffer */
+ int stream_pos; /* when reached, a new block must be read */
+ uint32_t code;
+ uint32_t range;
+ int infd; /* input file descriptor */
+ bool at_stream_end;
+ };
+
+bool Rd_read_block( struct Range_decoder * const rdec );
+
+static inline bool Rd_init( struct Range_decoder * const rdec, const int ifd )
+ {
+ rdec->partial_member_pos = 0;
+ rdec->buffer = (uint8_t *)malloc( rd_buffer_size );
+ if( !rdec->buffer ) return false;
+ rdec->pos = 0;
+ rdec->stream_pos = 0;
+ rdec->code = 0;
+ rdec->range = 0xFFFFFFFFU;
+ rdec->infd = ifd;
+ rdec->at_stream_end = false;
+ return true;
+ }
+
+static inline void Rd_free( struct Range_decoder * const rdec )
+ { free( rdec->buffer ); }
+
+static inline bool Rd_finished( struct Range_decoder * const rdec )
+ { return rdec->pos >= rdec->stream_pos && !Rd_read_block( rdec ); }
+
+static inline unsigned long long
+Rd_member_position( const struct Range_decoder * const rdec )
+ { return rdec->partial_member_pos + rdec->pos; }
+
+static inline void Rd_reset_member_position( struct Range_decoder * const rdec )
+ { rdec->partial_member_pos = 0; rdec->partial_member_pos -= rdec->pos; }
+
+static inline uint8_t Rd_get_byte( struct Range_decoder * const rdec )
+ {
+ /* 0xFF avoids decoder error if member is truncated at EOS marker */
+ if( Rd_finished( rdec ) ) return 0xFF;
+ return rdec->buffer[rdec->pos++];
+ }
+
+static inline int Rd_read_data( struct Range_decoder * const rdec,
+ uint8_t * const outbuf, const int size )
+ {
+ int sz = 0;
+ while( sz < size && !Rd_finished( rdec ) )
+ {
+ const int rd = min( size - sz, rdec->stream_pos - rdec->pos );
+ memcpy( outbuf + sz, rdec->buffer + rdec->pos, rd );
+ rdec->pos += rd;
+ sz += rd;
+ }
+ return sz;
+ }
+
+static inline void Rd_load( struct Range_decoder * const rdec )
+ {
+ int i;
+ rdec->code = 0;
+ for( i = 0; i < 5; ++i ) rdec->code = (rdec->code << 8) | Rd_get_byte( rdec );
+ rdec->range = 0xFFFFFFFFU;
+ rdec->code &= rdec->range; /* make sure that first byte is discarded */
+ }
+
+static inline void Rd_normalize( struct Range_decoder * const rdec )
+ {
+ if( rdec->range <= 0x00FFFFFFU )
+ { rdec->range <<= 8; rdec->code = (rdec->code << 8) | Rd_get_byte( rdec ); }
+ }
+
+static inline unsigned Rd_decode( struct Range_decoder * const rdec,
+ const int num_bits )
+ {
+ unsigned symbol = 0;
+ int i;
+ for( i = num_bits; i > 0; --i )
+ {
+ bool bit;
+ Rd_normalize( rdec );
+ rdec->range >>= 1;
+/* symbol <<= 1; */
+/* if( rdec->code >= rdec->range ) { rdec->code -= rdec->range; symbol |= 1; } */
+ bit = ( rdec->code >= rdec->range );
+ symbol <<= 1; symbol += bit;
+ rdec->code -= rdec->range & ( 0U - bit );
+ }
+ return symbol;
+ }
+
+static inline unsigned Rd_decode_bit( struct Range_decoder * const rdec,
+ Bit_model * const probability )
+ {
+ uint32_t bound;
+ Rd_normalize( rdec );
+ bound = ( rdec->range >> bit_model_total_bits ) * *probability;
+ if( rdec->code < bound )
+ {
+ rdec->range = bound;
+ *probability += (bit_model_total - *probability) >> bit_model_move_bits;
+ return 0;
+ }
+ else
+ {
+ rdec->range -= bound;
+ rdec->code -= bound;
+ *probability -= *probability >> bit_model_move_bits;
+ return 1;
+ }
+ }
+
+static inline unsigned Rd_decode_tree3( struct Range_decoder * const rdec,
+ Bit_model bm[] )
+ {
+ unsigned symbol = 2 | Rd_decode_bit( rdec, &bm[1] );
+ symbol = ( symbol << 1 ) | Rd_decode_bit( rdec, &bm[symbol] );
+ symbol = ( symbol << 1 ) | Rd_decode_bit( rdec, &bm[symbol] );
+ return symbol & 7;
+ }
+
+static inline unsigned Rd_decode_tree6( struct Range_decoder * const rdec,
+ Bit_model bm[] )
+ {
+ unsigned symbol = 2 | Rd_decode_bit( rdec, &bm[1] );
+ symbol = ( symbol << 1 ) | Rd_decode_bit( rdec, &bm[symbol] );
+ symbol = ( symbol << 1 ) | Rd_decode_bit( rdec, &bm[symbol] );
+ symbol = ( symbol << 1 ) | Rd_decode_bit( rdec, &bm[symbol] );
+ symbol = ( symbol << 1 ) | Rd_decode_bit( rdec, &bm[symbol] );
+ symbol = ( symbol << 1 ) | Rd_decode_bit( rdec, &bm[symbol] );
+ return symbol & 0x3F;
+ }
+
+static inline unsigned Rd_decode_tree8( struct Range_decoder * const rdec,
+ Bit_model bm[] )
+ {
+ unsigned symbol = 1;
+ int i;
+ for( i = 0; i < 8; ++i )
+ symbol = ( symbol << 1 ) | Rd_decode_bit( rdec, &bm[symbol] );
+ return symbol & 0xFF;
+ }
+
+static inline unsigned
+Rd_decode_tree_reversed( struct Range_decoder * const rdec,
+ Bit_model bm[], const int num_bits )
+ {
+ unsigned model = 1;
+ unsigned symbol = 0;
+ int i;
+ for( i = 0; i < num_bits; ++i )
+ {
+ const unsigned bit = Rd_decode_bit( rdec, &bm[model] );
+ model <<= 1; model += bit;
+ symbol |= ( bit << i );
+ }
+ return symbol;
+ }
+
+static inline unsigned
+Rd_decode_tree_reversed4( struct Range_decoder * const rdec, Bit_model bm[] )
+ {
+ unsigned symbol = Rd_decode_bit( rdec, &bm[1] );
+ symbol += Rd_decode_bit( rdec, &bm[2+symbol] ) << 1;
+ symbol += Rd_decode_bit( rdec, &bm[4+symbol] ) << 2;
+ symbol += Rd_decode_bit( rdec, &bm[8+symbol] ) << 3;
+ return symbol;
+ }
+
+static inline unsigned Rd_decode_matched( struct Range_decoder * const rdec,
+ Bit_model bm[], unsigned match_byte )
+ {
+ unsigned symbol = 1;
+ unsigned mask = 0x100;
+ while( true )
+ {
+ const unsigned match_bit = ( match_byte <<= 1 ) & mask;
+ const unsigned bit = Rd_decode_bit( rdec, &bm[symbol+match_bit+mask] );
+ symbol <<= 1; symbol += bit;
+ if( symbol > 0xFF ) return symbol & 0xFF;
+ mask &= ~(match_bit ^ (bit << 8)); /* if( match_bit != bit ) mask = 0; */
+ }
+ }
+
+static inline unsigned Rd_decode_len( struct Range_decoder * const rdec,
+ struct Len_model * const lm,
+ const int pos_state )
+ {
+ if( Rd_decode_bit( rdec, &lm->choice1 ) == 0 )
+ return Rd_decode_tree3( rdec, lm->bm_low[pos_state] );
+ if( Rd_decode_bit( rdec, &lm->choice2 ) == 0 )
+ return len_low_symbols + Rd_decode_tree3( rdec, lm->bm_mid[pos_state] );
+ return len_low_symbols + len_mid_symbols + Rd_decode_tree8( rdec, lm->bm_high );
+ }
+
+
+struct LZ_decoder
+ {
+ unsigned long long partial_data_pos;
+ struct Range_decoder * rdec;
+ unsigned dictionary_size;
+ uint8_t * buffer; /* output buffer */
+ unsigned pos; /* current pos in buffer */
+ unsigned stream_pos; /* first byte not yet written to file */
+ uint32_t crc;
+ int outfd; /* output file descriptor */
+ bool pos_wrapped;
+ };
+
+void LZd_flush_data( struct LZ_decoder * const d );
+
+static inline uint8_t LZd_peek_prev( const struct LZ_decoder * const d )
+ { return d->buffer[((d->pos > 0) ? d->pos : d->dictionary_size)-1]; }
+
+static inline uint8_t LZd_peek( const struct LZ_decoder * const d,
+ const unsigned distance )
+ {
+ const unsigned i = ( ( d->pos > distance ) ? 0 : d->dictionary_size ) +
+ d->pos - distance - 1;
+ return d->buffer[i];
+ }
+
+static inline void LZd_put_byte( struct LZ_decoder * const d, const uint8_t b )
+ {
+ d->buffer[d->pos] = b;
+ if( ++d->pos >= d->dictionary_size ) LZd_flush_data( d );
+ }
+
+static inline void LZd_copy_block( struct LZ_decoder * const d,
+ const unsigned distance, unsigned len )
+ {
+ unsigned lpos = d->pos, i = lpos - distance - 1;
+ bool fast, fast2;
+ if( lpos > distance )
+ {
+ fast = ( len < d->dictionary_size - lpos );
+ fast2 = ( fast && len <= lpos - i );
+ }
+ else
+ {
+ i += d->dictionary_size;
+ fast = ( len < d->dictionary_size - i ); /* (i == pos) may happen */
+ fast2 = ( fast && len <= i - lpos );
+ }
+ if( fast ) /* no wrap */
+ {
+ d->pos += len;
+ if( fast2 ) /* no wrap, no overlap */
+ memcpy( d->buffer + lpos, d->buffer + i, len );
+ else
+ for( ; len > 0; --len ) d->buffer[lpos++] = d->buffer[i++];
+ }
+ else for( ; len > 0; --len )
+ {
+ d->buffer[d->pos] = d->buffer[i];
+ if( ++d->pos >= d->dictionary_size ) LZd_flush_data( d );
+ if( ++i >= d->dictionary_size ) i = 0;
+ }
+ }
+
+static inline bool LZd_init( struct LZ_decoder * const d,
+ struct Range_decoder * const rde,
+ const unsigned dict_size, const int ofd )
+ {
+ d->partial_data_pos = 0;
+ d->rdec = rde;
+ d->dictionary_size = dict_size;
+ d->buffer = (uint8_t *)malloc( d->dictionary_size );
+ if( !d->buffer ) return false;
+ d->pos = 0;
+ d->stream_pos = 0;
+ d->crc = 0xFFFFFFFFU;
+ d->outfd = ofd;
+ d->pos_wrapped = false;
+ /* prev_byte of first byte; also for LZd_peek( 0 ) on corrupt file */
+ d->buffer[d->dictionary_size-1] = 0;
+ return true;
+ }
+
+static inline void LZd_free( struct LZ_decoder * const d )
+ { free( d->buffer ); }
+
+static inline unsigned LZd_crc( const struct LZ_decoder * const d )
+ { return d->crc ^ 0xFFFFFFFFU; }
+
+static inline unsigned long long
+LZd_data_position( const struct LZ_decoder * const d )
+ { return d->partial_data_pos + d->pos; }
+
+int LZd_decode_member( struct LZ_decoder * const d,
+ struct Pretty_print * const pp );
diff --git a/doc/clzip.1 b/doc/clzip.1
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..43cec6d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/doc/clzip.1
@@ -0,0 +1,134 @@
+.\" DO NOT MODIFY THIS FILE! It was generated by help2man 1.47.16.
+.TH CLZIP "1" "January 2021" "clzip 1.12" "User Commands"
+.SH NAME
+clzip \- reduces the size of files
+.SH SYNOPSIS
+.B clzip
+[\fI\,options\/\fR] [\fI\,files\/\fR]
+.SH DESCRIPTION
+Clzip is a C language version of lzip, fully compatible with lzip 1.4 or
+newer. As clzip is written in C, it may be easier to integrate in
+applications like package managers, embedded devices, or systems lacking a
+C++ compiler.
+.PP
+Lzip is a lossless data compressor with a user interface similar to the one
+of gzip or bzip2. Lzip uses a simplified form of the 'Lempel\-Ziv\-Markov
+chain\-Algorithm' (LZMA) stream format, chosen to maximize safety and
+interoperability. Lzip can compress about as fast as gzip (lzip \fB\-0\fR) or
+compress most files more than bzip2 (lzip \fB\-9\fR). Decompression speed is
+intermediate between gzip and bzip2. Lzip is better than gzip and bzip2 from
+a data recovery perspective. Lzip has been designed, written, and tested
+with great care to replace gzip and bzip2 as the standard general\-purpose
+compressed format for unix\-like systems.
+.SH OPTIONS
+.TP
+\fB\-h\fR, \fB\-\-help\fR
+display this help and exit
+.TP
+\fB\-V\fR, \fB\-\-version\fR
+output version information and exit
+.TP
+\fB\-a\fR, \fB\-\-trailing\-error\fR
+exit with error status if trailing data
+.TP
+\fB\-b\fR, \fB\-\-member\-size=\fR<bytes>
+set member size limit in bytes
+.TP
+\fB\-c\fR, \fB\-\-stdout\fR
+write to standard output, keep input files
+.TP
+\fB\-d\fR, \fB\-\-decompress\fR
+decompress
+.TP
+\fB\-f\fR, \fB\-\-force\fR
+overwrite existing output files
+.TP
+\fB\-F\fR, \fB\-\-recompress\fR
+force re\-compression of compressed files
+.TP
+\fB\-k\fR, \fB\-\-keep\fR
+keep (don't delete) input files
+.TP
+\fB\-l\fR, \fB\-\-list\fR
+print (un)compressed file sizes
+.TP
+\fB\-m\fR, \fB\-\-match\-length=\fR<bytes>
+set match length limit in bytes [36]
+.TP
+\fB\-o\fR, \fB\-\-output=\fR<file>
+write to <file>, keep input files
+.TP
+\fB\-q\fR, \fB\-\-quiet\fR
+suppress all messages
+.TP
+\fB\-s\fR, \fB\-\-dictionary\-size=\fR<bytes>
+set dictionary size limit in bytes [8 MiB]
+.TP
+\fB\-S\fR, \fB\-\-volume\-size=\fR<bytes>
+set volume size limit in bytes
+.TP
+\fB\-t\fR, \fB\-\-test\fR
+test compressed file integrity
+.TP
+\fB\-v\fR, \fB\-\-verbose\fR
+be verbose (a 2nd \fB\-v\fR gives more)
+.TP
+\fB\-0\fR .. \fB\-9\fR
+set compression level [default 6]
+.TP
+\fB\-\-fast\fR
+alias for \fB\-0\fR
+.TP
+\fB\-\-best\fR
+alias for \fB\-9\fR
+.TP
+\fB\-\-loose\-trailing\fR
+allow trailing data seeming corrupt header
+.PP
+If no file names are given, or if a file is '\-', clzip compresses or
+decompresses from standard input to standard output.
+Numbers may be followed by a multiplier: k = kB = 10^3 = 1000,
+Ki = KiB = 2^10 = 1024, M = 10^6, Mi = 2^20, G = 10^9, Gi = 2^30, etc...
+Dictionary sizes 12 to 29 are interpreted as powers of two, meaning 2^12
+to 2^29 bytes.
+.PP
+The bidimensional parameter space of LZMA can't be mapped to a linear
+scale optimal for all files. If your files are large, very repetitive,
+etc, you may need to use the options \fB\-\-dictionary\-size\fR and \fB\-\-match\-length\fR
+directly to achieve optimal performance.
+.PP
+To extract all the files from archive 'foo.tar.lz', use the commands
+\&'tar \fB\-xf\fR foo.tar.lz' or 'clzip \fB\-cd\fR foo.tar.lz | tar \fB\-xf\fR \-'.
+.PP
+Exit status: 0 for a normal exit, 1 for environmental problems (file
+not found, invalid flags, I/O errors, etc), 2 to indicate a corrupt or
+invalid input file, 3 for an internal consistency error (eg, bug) which
+caused clzip to panic.
+.PP
+The ideas embodied in clzip are due to (at least) the following people:
+Abraham Lempel and Jacob Ziv (for the LZ algorithm), Andrey Markov (for the
+definition of Markov chains), G.N.N. Martin (for the definition of range
+encoding), Igor Pavlov (for putting all the above together in LZMA), and
+Julian Seward (for bzip2's CLI).
+.SH "REPORTING BUGS"
+Report bugs to lzip\-bug@nongnu.org
+.br
+Clzip home page: http://www.nongnu.org/lzip/clzip.html
+.SH COPYRIGHT
+Copyright \(co 2021 Antonio Diaz Diaz.
+License GPLv2+: GNU GPL version 2 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>
+.br
+This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
+There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.
+.SH "SEE ALSO"
+The full documentation for
+.B clzip
+is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If the
+.B info
+and
+.B clzip
+programs are properly installed at your site, the command
+.IP
+.B info clzip
+.PP
+should give you access to the complete manual.
diff --git a/doc/clzip.info b/doc/clzip.info
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..d4bed66
--- /dev/null
+++ b/doc/clzip.info
@@ -0,0 +1,1703 @@
+This is clzip.info, produced by makeinfo version 4.13+ from clzip.texi.
+
+INFO-DIR-SECTION Data Compression
+START-INFO-DIR-ENTRY
+* Clzip: (clzip). LZMA lossless data compressor
+END-INFO-DIR-ENTRY
+
+
+File: clzip.info, Node: Top, Next: Introduction, Up: (dir)
+
+Clzip Manual
+************
+
+This manual is for Clzip (version 1.12, 4 January 2021).
+
+* Menu:
+
+* Introduction:: Purpose and features of clzip
+* Output:: Meaning of clzip's output
+* Invoking clzip:: Command line interface
+* Quality assurance:: Design, development, and testing of lzip
+* File format:: Detailed format of the compressed file
+* Algorithm:: How clzip compresses the data
+* Stream format:: Format of the LZMA stream in lzip files
+* Trailing data:: Extra data appended to the file
+* Examples:: A small tutorial with examples
+* Problems:: Reporting bugs
+* Reference source code:: Source code illustrating stream format
+* Concept index:: Index of concepts
+
+
+ Copyright (C) 2010-2021 Antonio Diaz Diaz.
+
+ This manual is free documentation: you have unlimited permission to copy,
+distribute, and modify it.
+
+
+File: clzip.info, Node: Introduction, Next: Output, Prev: Top, Up: Top
+
+1 Introduction
+**************
+
+Clzip is a C language version of lzip, fully compatible with lzip 1.4 or
+newer. As clzip is written in C, it may be easier to integrate in
+applications like package managers, embedded devices, or systems lacking a
+C++ compiler.
+
+ Lzip is a lossless data compressor with a user interface similar to the
+one of gzip or bzip2. Lzip uses a simplified form of the 'Lempel-Ziv-Markov
+chain-Algorithm' (LZMA) stream format, chosen to maximize safety and
+interoperability. Lzip can compress about as fast as gzip (lzip -0) or
+compress most files more than bzip2 (lzip -9). Decompression speed is
+intermediate between gzip and bzip2. Lzip is better than gzip and bzip2 from
+a data recovery perspective. Lzip has been designed, written, and tested
+with great care to replace gzip and bzip2 as the standard general-purpose
+compressed format for unix-like systems.
+
+ For compressing/decompressing large files on multiprocessor machines
+plzip can be much faster than lzip at the cost of a slightly reduced
+compression ratio. *Note plzip manual: (plzip)Top.
+
+ For creation and manipulation of compressed tar archives tarlz can be
+more efficient than using tar and plzip because tarlz is able to keep the
+alignment between tar members and lzip members. *Note tarlz manual:
+(tarlz)Top.
+
+ The lzip file format is designed for data sharing and long-term
+archiving, taking into account both data integrity and decoder availability:
+
+ * The lzip format provides very safe integrity checking and some data
+ recovery means. The program lziprecover can repair bit flip errors
+ (one of the most common forms of data corruption) in lzip files, and
+ provides data recovery capabilities, including error-checked merging
+ of damaged copies of a file. *Note Data safety: (lziprecover)Data
+ safety.
+
+ * The lzip format is as simple as possible (but not simpler). The lzip
+ manual provides the source code of a simple decompressor along with a
+ detailed explanation of how it works, so that with the only help of the
+ lzip manual it would be possible for a digital archaeologist to extract
+ the data from a lzip file long after quantum computers eventually
+ render LZMA obsolete.
+
+ * Additionally the lzip reference implementation is copylefted, which
+ guarantees that it will remain free forever.
+
+ A nice feature of the lzip format is that a corrupt byte is easier to
+repair the nearer it is from the beginning of the file. Therefore, with the
+help of lziprecover, losing an entire archive just because of a corrupt
+byte near the beginning is a thing of the past.
+
+ The member trailer stores the 32-bit CRC of the original data, the size
+of the original data, and the size of the member. These values, together
+with the end-of-stream marker, provide a 3 factor integrity checking which
+guarantees that the decompressed version of the data is identical to the
+original. This guards against corruption of the compressed data, and
+against undetected bugs in clzip (hopefully very unlikely). The chances of
+data corruption going undetected are microscopic. Be aware, though, that
+the check occurs upon decompression, so it can only tell you that something
+is wrong. It can't help you recover the original uncompressed data.
+
+ Clzip uses the same well-defined exit status values used by bzip2, which
+makes it safer than compressors returning ambiguous warning values (like
+gzip) when it is used as a back end for other programs like tar or zutils.
+
+ Clzip will automatically use for each file the largest dictionary size
+that does not exceed neither the file size nor the limit given. Keep in
+mind that the decompression memory requirement is affected at compression
+time by the choice of dictionary size limit.
+
+ The amount of memory required for compression is about 1 or 2 times the
+dictionary size limit (1 if input file size is less than dictionary size
+limit, else 2) plus 9 times the dictionary size really used. The option
+'-0' is special and only requires about 1.5 MiB at most. The amount of
+memory required for decompression is about 46 kB larger than the dictionary
+size really used.
+
+ When compressing, clzip replaces every file given in the command line
+with a compressed version of itself, with the name "original_name.lz". When
+decompressing, clzip attempts to guess the name for the decompressed file
+from that of the compressed file as follows:
+
+filename.lz becomes filename
+filename.tlz becomes filename.tar
+anyothername becomes anyothername.out
+
+ (De)compressing a file is much like copying or moving it; therefore clzip
+preserves the access and modification dates, permissions, and, when
+possible, ownership of the file just as 'cp -p' does. (If the user ID or
+the group ID can't be duplicated, the file permission bits S_ISUID and
+S_ISGID are cleared).
+
+ Clzip is able to read from some types of non-regular files if either the
+option '-c' or the option '-o' is specified.
+
+ Clzip will refuse to read compressed data from a terminal or write
+compressed data to a terminal, as this would be entirely incomprehensible
+and might leave the terminal in an abnormal state.
+
+ Clzip will correctly decompress a file which is the concatenation of two
+or more compressed files. The result is the concatenation of the
+corresponding decompressed files. Integrity testing of concatenated
+compressed files is also supported.
+
+ Clzip can produce multimember files, and lziprecover can safely recover
+the undamaged members in case of file damage. Clzip can also split the
+compressed output in volumes of a given size, even when reading from
+standard input. This allows the direct creation of multivolume compressed
+tar archives.
+
+ Clzip is able to compress and decompress streams of unlimited size by
+automatically creating multimember output. The members so created are large,
+about 2 PiB each.
+
+
+File: clzip.info, Node: Output, Next: Invoking clzip, Prev: Introduction, Up: Top
+
+2 Meaning of clzip's output
+***************************
+
+The output of clzip looks like this:
+
+ clzip -v foo
+ foo: 6.676:1, 14.98% ratio, 85.02% saved, 450560 in, 67493 out.
+
+ clzip -tvvv foo.lz
+ foo.lz: 6.676:1, 14.98% ratio, 85.02% saved. 450560 out, 67493 in. ok
+
+ The meaning of each field is as follows:
+
+'N:1'
+ The compression ratio (uncompressed_size / compressed_size), shown as
+ N to 1.
+
+'ratio'
+ The inverse compression ratio (compressed_size / uncompressed_size),
+ shown as a percentage. A decimal ratio is easily obtained by moving the
+ decimal point two places to the left; 14.98% = 0.1498.
+
+'saved'
+ The space saved by compression (1 - ratio), shown as a percentage.
+
+'in'
+ Size of the input data. This is the uncompressed size when
+ compressing, or the compressed size when decompressing or testing.
+ Note that clzip always prints the uncompressed size before the
+ compressed size when compressing, decompressing, testing, or listing.
+
+'out'
+ Size of the output data. This is the compressed size when compressing,
+ or the decompressed size when decompressing or testing.
+
+
+ When decompressing or testing at verbosity level 4 (-vvvv), the
+dictionary size used to compress the file and the CRC32 of the uncompressed
+data are also shown.
+
+ LANGUAGE NOTE: Uncompressed = not compressed = plain data; it may never
+have been compressed. Decompressed is used to refer to data which have
+undergone the process of decompression.
+
+
+File: clzip.info, Node: Invoking clzip, Next: Quality assurance, Prev: Output, Up: Top
+
+3 Invoking clzip
+****************
+
+The format for running clzip is:
+
+ clzip [OPTIONS] [FILES]
+
+If no file names are specified, clzip compresses (or decompresses) from
+standard input to standard output. A hyphen '-' used as a FILE argument
+means standard input. It can be mixed with other FILES and is read just
+once, the first time it appears in the command line.
+
+ clzip supports the following options: *Note Argument syntax:
+(arg_parser)Argument syntax.
+
+'-h'
+'--help'
+ Print an informative help message describing the options and exit.
+
+'-V'
+'--version'
+ Print the version number of clzip on the standard output and exit.
+ This version number should be included in all bug reports.
+
+'-a'
+'--trailing-error'
+ Exit with error status 2 if any remaining input is detected after
+ decompressing the last member. Such remaining input is usually trailing
+ garbage that can be safely ignored. *Note concat-example::.
+
+'-b BYTES'
+'--member-size=BYTES'
+ When compressing, set the member size limit to BYTES. It is advisable
+ to keep members smaller than RAM size so that they can be repaired with
+ lziprecover in case of corruption. A small member size may degrade
+ compression ratio, so use it only when needed. Valid values range from
+ 100 kB to 2 PiB. Defaults to 2 PiB.
+
+'-c'
+'--stdout'
+ Compress or decompress to standard output; keep input files unchanged.
+ If compressing several files, each file is compressed independently.
+ (The output consists of a sequence of independently compressed
+ members). This option (or '-o') is needed when reading from a named
+ pipe (fifo) or from a device. Use it also to recover as much of the
+ decompressed data as possible when decompressing a corrupt file. '-c'
+ overrides '-o' and '-S'. '-c' has no effect when testing or listing.
+
+'-d'
+'--decompress'
+ Decompress the files specified. If a file does not exist or can't be
+ opened, clzip continues decompressing the rest of the files. If a file
+ fails to decompress, or is a terminal, clzip exits immediately without
+ decompressing the rest of the files.
+
+'-f'
+'--force'
+ Force overwrite of output files.
+
+'-F'
+'--recompress'
+ When compressing, force re-compression of files whose name already has
+ the '.lz' or '.tlz' suffix.
+
+'-k'
+'--keep'
+ Keep (don't delete) input files during compression or decompression.
+
+'-l'
+'--list'
+ Print the uncompressed size, compressed size, and percentage saved of
+ the files specified. Trailing data are ignored. The values produced
+ are correct even for multimember files. If more than one file is
+ given, a final line containing the cumulative sizes is printed. With
+ '-v', the dictionary size, the number of members in the file, and the
+ amount of trailing data (if any) are also printed. With '-vv', the
+ positions and sizes of each member in multimember files are also
+ printed.
+
+ '-lq' can be used to verify quickly (without decompressing) the
+ structural integrity of the files specified. (Use '--test' to verify
+ the data integrity). '-alq' additionally verifies that none of the
+ files specified contain trailing data.
+
+'-m BYTES'
+'--match-length=BYTES'
+ When compressing, set the match length limit in bytes. After a match
+ this long is found, the search is finished. Valid values range from 5
+ to 273. Larger values usually give better compression ratios but longer
+ compression times.
+
+'-o FILE'
+'--output=FILE'
+ If '-c' has not been also specified, write the (de)compressed output to
+ FILE; keep input files unchanged. If compressing several files, each
+ file is compressed independently. (The output consists of a sequence of
+ independently compressed members). This option (or '-c') is needed when
+ reading from a named pipe (fifo) or from a device. '-o -' is
+ equivalent to '-c'. '-o' has no effect when testing or listing.
+
+ In order to keep backward compatibility with clzip versions prior to
+ 1.12, when compressing from standard input and no other file names are
+ given, the extension '.lz' is appended to FILE unless it already ends
+ in '.lz' or '.tlz'. This feature will be removed in a future version
+ of clzip. Meanwhile, redirection may be used instead of '-o' to write
+ the compressed output to a file without the extension '.lz' in its
+ name: 'clzip < file > foo'.
+
+ When compressing and splitting the output in volumes, FILE is used as
+ a prefix, and several files named 'FILE00001.lz', 'FILE00002.lz', etc,
+ are created. In this case, only one input file is allowed.
+
+'-q'
+'--quiet'
+ Quiet operation. Suppress all messages.
+
+'-s BYTES'
+'--dictionary-size=BYTES'
+ When compressing, set the dictionary size limit in bytes. Clzip will
+ use for each file the largest dictionary size that does not exceed
+ neither the file size nor this limit. Valid values range from 4 KiB to
+ 512 MiB. Values 12 to 29 are interpreted as powers of two, meaning
+ 2^12 to 2^29 bytes. Dictionary sizes are quantized so that they can be
+ coded in just one byte (*note coded-dict-size::). If the size specified
+ does not match one of the valid sizes, it will be rounded upwards by
+ adding up to (BYTES / 8) to it.
+
+ For maximum compression you should use a dictionary size limit as large
+ as possible, but keep in mind that the decompression memory requirement
+ is affected at compression time by the choice of dictionary size limit.
+
+'-S BYTES'
+'--volume-size=BYTES'
+ When compressing, and '-c' has not been also specified, split the
+ compressed output into several volume files with names
+ 'original_name00001.lz', 'original_name00002.lz', etc, and set the
+ volume size limit to BYTES. Input files are kept unchanged. Each
+ volume is a complete, maybe multimember, lzip file. A small volume
+ size may degrade compression ratio, so use it only when needed. Valid
+ values range from 100 kB to 4 EiB.
+
+'-t'
+'--test'
+ Check integrity of the files specified, but don't decompress them. This
+ really performs a trial decompression and throws away the result. Use
+ it together with '-v' to see information about the files. If a file
+ fails the test, does not exist, can't be opened, or is a terminal,
+ clzip continues checking the rest of the files. A final diagnostic is
+ shown at verbosity level 1 or higher if any file fails the test when
+ testing multiple files.
+
+'-v'
+'--verbose'
+ Verbose mode.
+ When compressing, show the compression ratio and size for each file
+ processed.
+ When decompressing or testing, further -v's (up to 4) increase the
+ verbosity level, showing status, compression ratio, dictionary size,
+ trailer contents (CRC, data size, member size), and up to 6 bytes of
+ trailing data (if any) both in hexadecimal and as a string of printable
+ ASCII characters.
+ Two or more '-v' options show the progress of (de)compression.
+
+'-0 .. -9'
+ Compression level. Set the compression parameters (dictionary size and
+ match length limit) as shown in the table below. The default
+ compression level is '-6', equivalent to '-s8MiB -m36'. Note that '-9'
+ can be much slower than '-0'. These options have no effect when
+ decompressing, testing, or listing.
+
+ The bidimensional parameter space of LZMA can't be mapped to a linear
+ scale optimal for all files. If your files are large, very repetitive,
+ etc, you may need to use the options '--dictionary-size' and
+ '--match-length' directly to achieve optimal performance.
+
+ If several compression levels or '-s' or '-m' options are given, the
+ last setting is used. For example '-9 -s64MiB' is equivalent to
+ '-s64MiB -m273'
+
+ Level Dictionary size (-s) Match length limit (-m)
+ -0 64 KiB 16 bytes
+ -1 1 MiB 5 bytes
+ -2 1.5 MiB 6 bytes
+ -3 2 MiB 8 bytes
+ -4 3 MiB 12 bytes
+ -5 4 MiB 20 bytes
+ -6 8 MiB 36 bytes
+ -7 16 MiB 68 bytes
+ -8 24 MiB 132 bytes
+ -9 32 MiB 273 bytes
+
+'--fast'
+'--best'
+ Aliases for GNU gzip compatibility.
+
+'--loose-trailing'
+ When decompressing, testing, or listing, allow trailing data whose
+ first bytes are so similar to the magic bytes of a lzip header that
+ they can be confused with a corrupt header. Use this option if a file
+ triggers a "corrupt header" error and the cause is not indeed a
+ corrupt header.
+
+
+ Numbers given as arguments to options may be followed by a multiplier
+and an optional 'B' for "byte".
+
+ Table of SI and binary prefixes (unit multipliers):
+
+Prefix Value | Prefix Value
+k kilobyte (10^3 = 1000) | Ki kibibyte (2^10 = 1024)
+M megabyte (10^6) | Mi mebibyte (2^20)
+G gigabyte (10^9) | Gi gibibyte (2^30)
+T terabyte (10^12) | Ti tebibyte (2^40)
+P petabyte (10^15) | Pi pebibyte (2^50)
+E exabyte (10^18) | Ei exbibyte (2^60)
+Z zettabyte (10^21) | Zi zebibyte (2^70)
+Y yottabyte (10^24) | Yi yobibyte (2^80)
+
+
+ Exit status: 0 for a normal exit, 1 for environmental problems (file not
+found, invalid flags, I/O errors, etc), 2 to indicate a corrupt or invalid
+input file, 3 for an internal consistency error (eg, bug) which caused
+clzip to panic.
+
+
+File: clzip.info, Node: Quality assurance, Next: File format, Prev: Invoking clzip, Up: Top
+
+4 Design, development, and testing of lzip
+******************************************
+
+There are two ways of constructing a software design: One way is to make it
+so simple that there are obviously no deficiencies and the other way is to
+make it so complicated that there are no obvious deficiencies. The first
+method is far more difficult.
+-- C.A.R. Hoare
+
+ Lzip is developed by volunteers who lack the resources required for
+extensive testing in all circumstances. It is up to you to test lzip before
+using it in mission-critical applications. However, a compressor like lzip
+is not a toy, and maintaining it is not a hobby. Many people's data depend
+on it. Therefore the lzip file format has been reviewed carefully and is
+believed to be free from negligent design errors.
+
+ Lzip has been designed, written, and tested with great care to replace
+gzip and bzip2 as the standard general-purpose compressed format for
+unix-like systems. This chapter describes the lessons learned from these
+previous formats, and their application to the design of lzip.
+
+
+4.1 Format design
+=================
+
+When gzip was designed in 1992, computers and operating systems were much
+less capable than they are today. The designers of gzip tried to work around
+some of those limitations, like 8.3 file names, with additional fields in
+the file format.
+
+ Today those limitations have mostly disappeared, and the format of gzip
+has proved to be unnecessarily complicated. It includes fields that were
+never used, others that have lost their usefulness, and finally others that
+have become too limited.
+
+ Bzip2 was designed 5 years later, and its format is simpler than the one
+of gzip.
+
+ Probably the worst defect of the gzip format from the point of view of
+data safety is the variable size of its header. If the byte at offset 3
+(flags) of a gzip member gets corrupted, it may become difficult to recover
+the data, even if the compressed blocks are intact, because it can't be
+known with certainty where the compressed blocks begin.
+
+ By contrast, the header of a lzip member has a fixed length of 6. The
+LZMA stream in a lzip member always starts at offset 6, making it trivial to
+recover the data even if the whole header becomes corrupt.
+
+ Bzip2 also provides a header of fixed length and marks the begin and end
+of each compressed block with six magic bytes, making it possible to find
+the compressed blocks even in case of file damage. But bzip2 does not store
+the size of each compressed block, as lzip does.
+
+ Lziprecover is able to provide unique data recovery capabilities because
+the lzip format is extraordinarily safe. The simple and safe design of the
+file format complements the embedded error detection provided by the LZMA
+data stream. Any distance larger than the dictionary size acts as a
+forbidden symbol, allowing the decompressor to detect the approximate
+position of errors, and leaving very little work for the check sequence
+(CRC and data sizes) in the detection of errors. Lzip is usually able to
+detect all possible bit flips in the compressed data without resorting to
+the check sequence. It would be difficult to write an automatic recovery
+tool like lziprecover for the gzip format. And, as far as I know, it has
+never been written.
+
+ Lzip, like gzip and bzip2, uses a CRC32 to check the integrity of the
+decompressed data because it provides optimal accuracy in the detection of
+errors up to a compressed size of about 16 GiB, a size larger than that of
+most files. In the case of lzip, the additional detection capability of the
+decompressor reduces the probability of undetected errors several million
+times more, resulting in a combined integrity checking optimally accurate
+for any member size produced by lzip. Preliminary results suggest that the
+lzip format is safe enough to be used in critical safety avionics systems.
+
+ The lzip format is designed for long-term archiving. Therefore it
+excludes any unneeded features that may interfere with the future
+extraction of the decompressed data.
+
+
+4.1.1 Gzip format (mis)features not present in lzip
+---------------------------------------------------
+
+'Multiple algorithms'
+ Gzip provides a CM (Compression Method) field that has never been used
+ because it is a bad idea to begin with. New compression methods may
+ require additional fields, making it impossible to implement new
+ methods and, at the same time, keep the same format. This field does
+ not solve the problem of format proliferation; it just makes the
+ problem less obvious.
+
+'Optional fields in header'
+ Unless special precautions are taken, optional fields are generally a
+ bad idea because they produce a header of variable size. The gzip
+ header has 2 fields that, in addition to being optional, are
+ zero-terminated. This means that if any byte inside the field gets
+ zeroed, or if the terminating zero gets altered, gzip won't be able to
+ find neither the header CRC nor the compressed blocks.
+
+'Optional CRC for the header'
+ Using an optional CRC for the header is not only a bad idea, it is an
+ error; it circumvents the Hamming distance (HD) of the CRC and may
+ prevent the extraction of perfectly good data. For example, if the CRC
+ is used and the bit enabling it is reset by a bit flip, the header
+ will appear to be intact (in spite of being corrupt) while the
+ compressed blocks will appear to be totally unrecoverable (in spite of
+ being intact). Very misleading indeed.
+
+'Metadata'
+ The gzip format stores some metadata, like the modification time of the
+ original file or the operating system on which compression took place.
+ This complicates reproducible compression (obtaining identical
+ compressed output from identical input).
+
+
+4.1.2 Lzip format improvements over gzip and bzip2
+--------------------------------------------------
+
+'64-bit size field'
+ Probably the most frequently reported shortcoming of the gzip format
+ is that it only stores the least significant 32 bits of the
+ uncompressed size. The size of any file larger than 4 GiB gets
+ truncated.
+
+ Bzip2 does not store the uncompressed size of the file.
+
+ The lzip format provides a 64-bit field for the uncompressed size.
+ Additionally, lzip produces multimember output automatically when the
+ size is too large for a single member, allowing for an unlimited
+ uncompressed size.
+
+'Distributed index'
+ The lzip format provides a distributed index that, among other things,
+ helps plzip to decompress several times faster than pigz and helps
+ lziprecover do its job. Neither the gzip format nor the bzip2 format
+ do provide an index.
+
+ A distributed index is safer and more scalable than a monolithic
+ index. The monolithic index introduces a single point of failure in
+ the compressed file and may limit the number of members or the total
+ uncompressed size.
+
+
+4.2 Quality of implementation
+=============================
+
+'Accurate and robust error detection'
+ The lzip format provides 3 factor integrity checking and the
+ decompressors report mismatches in each factor separately. This way if
+ just one byte in one factor fails but the other two factors match the
+ data, it probably means that the data are intact and the corruption
+ just affects the mismatching factor (CRC or data size) in the check
+ sequence.
+
+'Multiple implementations'
+ Just like the lzip format provides 3 factor protection against
+ undetected data corruption, the development methodology of the lzip
+ family of compressors provides 3 factor protection against undetected
+ programming errors.
+
+ Three related but independent compressor implementations, lzip, clzip,
+ and minilzip/lzlib, are developed concurrently. Every stable release
+ of any of them is tested to verify that it produces identical output
+ to the other two. This guarantees that all three implement the same
+ algorithm, and makes it unlikely that any of them may contain serious
+ undiscovered errors. In fact, no errors have been discovered in lzip
+ since 2009.
+
+ Additionally, the three implementations have been extensively tested
+ with unzcrash, valgrind, and 'american fuzzy lop' without finding a
+ single vulnerability or false negative. *Note Unzcrash:
+ (lziprecover)Unzcrash.
+
+'Dictionary size'
+ Lzip automatically adapts the dictionary size to the size of each file.
+ In addition to reducing the amount of memory required for
+ decompression, this feature also minimizes the probability of being
+ affected by RAM errors during compression.
+
+'Exit status'
+ Returning a warning status of 2 is a design flaw of compress that
+ leaked into the design of gzip. Both bzip2 and lzip are free from this
+ flaw.
+
+
+
+File: clzip.info, Node: File format, Next: Algorithm, Prev: Quality assurance, Up: Top
+
+5 File format
+*************
+
+Perfection is reached, not when there is no longer anything to add, but
+when there is no longer anything to take away.
+-- Antoine de Saint-Exupery
+
+
+ In the diagram below, a box like this:
+
++---+
+| | <-- the vertical bars might be missing
++---+
+
+ represents one byte; a box like this:
+
++==============+
+| |
++==============+
+
+ represents a variable number of bytes.
+
+
+ A lzip file consists of a series of "members" (compressed data sets).
+The members simply appear one after another in the file, with no additional
+information before, between, or after them.
+
+ Each member has the following structure:
+
++--+--+--+--+----+----+=============+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
+| ID string | VN | DS | LZMA stream | CRC32 | Data size | Member size |
++--+--+--+--+----+----+=============+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
+
+ All multibyte values are stored in little endian order.
+
+'ID string (the "magic" bytes)'
+ A four byte string, identifying the lzip format, with the value "LZIP"
+ (0x4C, 0x5A, 0x49, 0x50).
+
+'VN (version number, 1 byte)'
+ Just in case something needs to be modified in the future. 1 for now.
+
+'DS (coded dictionary size, 1 byte)'
+ The dictionary size is calculated by taking a power of 2 (the base
+ size) and subtracting from it a fraction between 0/16 and 7/16 of the
+ base size.
+ Bits 4-0 contain the base 2 logarithm of the base size (12 to 29).
+ Bits 7-5 contain the numerator of the fraction (0 to 7) to subtract
+ from the base size to obtain the dictionary size.
+ Example: 0xD3 = 2^19 - 6 * 2^15 = 512 KiB - 6 * 32 KiB = 320 KiB
+ Valid values for dictionary size range from 4 KiB to 512 MiB.
+
+'LZMA stream'
+ The LZMA stream, finished by an end of stream marker. Uses default
+ values for encoder properties. *Note Stream format::, for a complete
+ description.
+
+'CRC32 (4 bytes)'
+ Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) of the uncompressed original data.
+
+'Data size (8 bytes)'
+ Size of the uncompressed original data.
+
+'Member size (8 bytes)'
+ Total size of the member, including header and trailer. This field acts
+ as a distributed index, allows the verification of stream integrity,
+ and facilitates safe recovery of undamaged members from multimember
+ files.
+
+
+
+File: clzip.info, Node: Algorithm, Next: Stream format, Prev: File format, Up: Top
+
+6 Algorithm
+***********
+
+In spite of its name (Lempel-Ziv-Markov chain-Algorithm), LZMA is not a
+concrete algorithm; it is more like "any algorithm using the LZMA coding
+scheme". LZMA compression consists in describing the uncompressed data as a
+succession of coding sequences from the set shown in Section 'What is
+coded' (*note what-is-coded::), and then encoding them using a range
+encoder. For example, the option '-0' of clzip uses the scheme in almost
+the simplest way possible; issuing the longest match it can find, or a
+literal byte if it can't find a match. Inversely, a much more elaborated way
+of finding coding sequences of minimum size than the one currently used by
+clzip could be developed, and the resulting sequence could also be coded
+using the LZMA coding scheme.
+
+ Clzip currently implements two variants of the LZMA algorithm; fast
+(used by option '-0') and normal (used by all other compression levels).
+
+ The high compression of LZMA comes from combining two basic, well-proven
+compression ideas: sliding dictionaries (LZ77/78) and markov models (the
+thing used by every compression algorithm that uses a range encoder or
+similar order-0 entropy coder as its last stage) with segregation of
+contexts according to what the bits are used for.
+
+ Clzip is a two stage compressor. The first stage is a Lempel-Ziv coder,
+which reduces redundancy by translating chunks of data to their
+corresponding distance-length pairs. The second stage is a range encoder
+that uses a different probability model for each type of data; distances,
+lengths, literal bytes, etc.
+
+ Here is how it works, step by step:
+
+ 1) The member header is written to the output stream.
+
+ 2) The first byte is coded literally, because there are no previous
+bytes to which the match finder can refer to.
+
+ 3) The main encoder advances to the next byte in the input data and
+calls the match finder.
+
+ 4) The match finder fills an array with the minimum distances before the
+current byte where a match of a given length can be found.
+
+ 5) Go back to step 3 until a sequence (formed of pairs, repeated
+distances, and literal bytes) of minimum price has been formed. Where the
+price represents the number of output bits produced.
+
+ 6) The range encoder encodes the sequence produced by the main encoder
+and sends the bytes produced to the output stream.
+
+ 7) Go back to step 3 until the input data are finished or until the
+member or volume size limits are reached.
+
+ 8) The range encoder is flushed.
+
+ 9) The member trailer is written to the output stream.
+
+ 10) If there are more data to compress, go back to step 1.
+
+
+ During compression, clzip reads data in large blocks (one dictionary
+size at a time). Therefore it may block for up to tens of seconds any
+process feeding data to it through a pipe. This is normal. The blocking
+intervals get longer with higher compression levels because dictionary size
+increases (and compression speed decreases) with compression level.
+
+The ideas embodied in clzip are due to (at least) the following people:
+Abraham Lempel and Jacob Ziv (for the LZ algorithm), Andrey Markov (for the
+definition of Markov chains), G.N.N. Martin (for the definition of range
+encoding), Igor Pavlov (for putting all the above together in LZMA), and
+Julian Seward (for bzip2's CLI).
+
+
+File: clzip.info, Node: Stream format, Next: Trailing data, Prev: Algorithm, Up: Top
+
+7 Format of the LZMA stream in lzip files
+*****************************************
+
+Lzip uses a simplified form of the LZMA stream format chosen to maximize
+safety and interoperability.
+
+ The LZMA algorithm has three parameters, called "special LZMA
+properties", to adjust it for some kinds of binary data. These parameters
+are; 'literal_context_bits' (with a default value of 3),
+'literal_pos_state_bits' (with a default value of 0), and 'pos_state_bits'
+(with a default value of 2). As a general purpose compressor, lzip only
+uses the default values for these parameters. In particular
+'literal_pos_state_bits' has been optimized away and does not even appear
+in the code.
+
+ Lzip finishes the LZMA stream with an "End Of Stream" (EOS) marker (the
+distance-length pair 0xFFFFFFFFU, 2), which in conjunction with the 'member
+size' field in the member trailer allows the verification of stream
+integrity. The LZMA stream in lzip files always has these two features
+(default properties and EOS marker) and is referred to in this document as
+LZMA-302eos. The EOS marker is the only marker allowed in lzip files.
+
+ The second stage of LZMA is a range encoder that uses a different
+probability model for each type of symbol; distances, lengths, literal
+bytes, etc. Range encoding conceptually encodes all the symbols of the
+message into one number. Unlike Huffman coding, which assigns to each
+symbol a bit-pattern and concatenates all the bit-patterns together, range
+encoding can compress one symbol to less than one bit. Therefore the
+compressed data produced by a range encoder can't be split in pieces that
+could be described individually.
+
+ It seems that the only way of describing the LZMA-302eos stream is
+describing the algorithm that decodes it. And given the many details about
+the range decoder that need to be described accurately, the source code of
+a real decoder seems the only appropriate reference to use.
+
+ What follows is a description of the decoding algorithm for LZMA-302eos
+streams using as reference the source code of "lzd", an educational
+decompressor for lzip files which can be downloaded from the lzip download
+directory. The source code of lzd is included in appendix A. *Note
+Reference source code::.
+
+
+7.1 What is coded
+=================
+
+The LZMA stream includes literals, matches, and repeated matches (matches
+reusing a recently used distance). There are 7 different coding sequences:
+
+Bit sequence Name Description
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
+0 + byte literal literal byte
+1 + 0 + len + dis match distance-length pair
+1 + 1 + 0 + 0 shortrep 1 byte match at latest used distance
+1 + 1 + 0 + 1 + len rep0 len bytes match at latest used distance
+1 + 1 + 1 + 0 + len rep1 len bytes match at second latest used
+ distance
+1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 0 + len rep2 len bytes match at third latest used
+ distance
+1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + len rep3 len bytes match at fourth latest used
+ distance
+
+
+ In the following tables, multibit sequences are coded in normal order,
+from most significant bit (MSB) to least significant bit (LSB), except
+where noted otherwise.
+
+ Lengths (the 'len' in the table above) are coded as follows:
+
+Bit sequence Description
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------
+0 + 3 bits lengths from 2 to 9
+1 + 0 + 3 bits lengths from 10 to 17
+1 + 1 + 8 bits lengths from 18 to 273
+
+
+ The coding of distances is a little more complicated, so I'll begin
+explaining a simpler version of the encoding.
+
+ Imagine you need to encode a number from 0 to 2^32 - 1, and you want to
+do it in a way that produces shorter codes for the smaller numbers. You may
+first encode the position of the most significant bit that is set to 1,
+which you may find by making a bit scan from the left (from the MSB). A
+position of 0 means that the number is 0 (no bit is set), 1 means the LSB is
+the first bit set (the number is 1), and 32 means the MSB is set (i.e., the
+number is >= 0x80000000). Then, if the position is >= 2, you encode the
+remaining position - 1 bits. Let's call these bits "direct_bits" because
+they are coded directly by value instead of indirectly by position.
+
+ The inconvenient of this simple method is that it needs 6 bits to encode
+the position, but it just uses 33 of the 64 possible values, wasting almost
+half of the codes.
+
+ The intelligent trick of LZMA is that it encodes in what it calls a
+"slot" the position of the most significant bit set, along with the value
+of the next bit, using the same 6 bits that would take to encode the
+position alone. This seems to need 66 slots (twice the number of
+positions), but for positions 0 and 1 there is no next bit, so the number
+of slots needed is 64 (0 to 63).
+
+ The 6 bits representing this "slot number" are then context-coded. If
+the distance is >= 4, the remaining bits are encoded as follows.
+'direct_bits' is the amount of remaining bits (from 1 to 30) needed to form
+a complete distance, and is calculated as (slot >> 1) - 1. If a distance
+needs 6 or more direct_bits, the last 4 bits are encoded separately. The
+last piece (all the direct_bits for distances 4 to 127, or the last 4 bits
+for distances >= 128) is context-coded in reverse order (from LSB to MSB).
+For distances >= 128, the 'direct_bits - 4' part is encoded with fixed 0.5
+probability.
+
+Bit sequence Description
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------
+slot distances from 0 to 3
+slot + direct_bits distances from 4 to 127
+slot + (direct_bits - 4) + 4 bits distances from 128 to 2^32 - 1
+
+
+7.2 The coding contexts
+=======================
+
+These contexts ('Bit_model' in the source), are integers or arrays of
+integers representing the probability of the corresponding bit being 0.
+
+ The indices used in these arrays are:
+
+'state'
+ A state machine ('State' in the source) with 12 states (0 to 11),
+ coding the latest 2 to 4 types of sequences processed. The initial
+ state is 0.
+
+'pos_state'
+ Value of the 2 least significant bits of the current position in the
+ decoded data.
+
+'literal_state'
+ Value of the 3 most significant bits of the latest byte decoded.
+
+'len_state'
+ Coded value of the current match length (length - 2), with a maximum
+ of 3. The resulting value is in the range 0 to 3.
+
+
+ In the following table, '!literal' is any sequence except a literal
+byte. 'rep' is any one of 'rep0', 'rep1', 'rep2', or 'rep3'. The types of
+previous sequences corresponding to each state are:
+
+State Types of previous sequences
+------------------------------------------------------
+0 literal, literal, literal
+1 match, literal, literal
+2 rep or (!literal, shortrep), literal, literal
+3 literal, shortrep, literal, literal
+4 match, literal
+5 rep or (!literal, shortrep), literal
+6 literal, shortrep, literal
+7 literal, match
+8 literal, rep
+9 literal, shortrep
+10 !literal, match
+11 !literal, (rep or shortrep)
+
+
+ The contexts for decoding the type of coding sequence are:
+
+Name Indices Used when
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------
+bm_match state, pos_state sequence start
+bm_rep state after sequence 1
+bm_rep0 state after sequence 11
+bm_rep1 state after sequence 111
+bm_rep2 state after sequence 1111
+bm_len state, pos_state after sequence 110
+
+
+ The contexts for decoding distances are:
+
+Name Indices Used when
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------
+bm_dis_slot len_state, bit tree distance start
+bm_dis reverse bit tree after slots 4 to 13
+bm_align reverse bit tree for distances >= 128, after fixed
+ probability bits
+
+
+ There are two separate sets of contexts for lengths ('Len_model' in the
+source). One for normal matches, the other for repeated matches. The
+contexts in each Len_model are (see 'decode_len' in the source):
+
+Name Indices Used when
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+choice1 none length start
+choice2 none after sequence 1
+bm_low pos_state, bit tree after sequence 0
+bm_mid pos_state, bit tree after sequence 10
+bm_high bit tree after sequence 11
+
+
+ The context array 'bm_literal' is special. In principle it acts as a
+normal bit tree context, the one selected by 'literal_state'. But if the
+previous decoded byte was not a literal, two other bit tree contexts are
+used depending on the value of each bit in 'match_byte' (the byte at the
+latest used distance), until a bit is decoded that is different from its
+corresponding bit in 'match_byte'. After the first difference is found, the
+rest of the byte is decoded using the normal bit tree context. (See
+'decode_matched' in the source).
+
+
+7.3 The range decoder
+=====================
+
+The LZMA stream is consumed one byte at a time by the range decoder. (See
+'normalize' in the source). Every byte consumed produces a variable number
+of decoded bits, depending on how well these bits agree with their context.
+(See 'decode_bit' in the source).
+
+ The range decoder state consists of two unsigned 32-bit variables;
+'range' (representing the most significant part of the range size not yet
+decoded), and 'code' (representing the current point within 'range').
+'range' is initialized to 2^32 - 1, and 'code' is initialized to 0.
+
+ The range encoder produces a first 0 byte that must be ignored by the
+range decoder. This is done by shifting 5 bytes in the initialization of
+'code' instead of 4. (See the 'Range_decoder' constructor in the source).
+
+
+7.4 Decoding and verifying the LZMA stream
+==========================================
+
+After decoding the member header and obtaining the dictionary size, the
+range decoder is initialized and then the LZMA decoder enters a loop (See
+'decode_member' in the source) where it invokes the range decoder with the
+appropriate contexts to decode the different coding sequences (matches,
+repeated matches, and literal bytes), until the "End Of Stream" marker is
+decoded.
+
+ Once the "End Of Stream" marker has been decoded, the decompressor reads
+and decodes the member trailer, and verifies that the three integrity
+factors (CRC, data size, and member size) match those calculated by the
+LZMA decoder.
+
+
+File: clzip.info, Node: Trailing data, Next: Examples, Prev: Stream format, Up: Top
+
+8 Extra data appended to the file
+*********************************
+
+Sometimes extra data are found appended to a lzip file after the last
+member. Such trailing data may be:
+
+ * Padding added to make the file size a multiple of some block size, for
+ example when writing to a tape. It is safe to append any amount of
+ padding zero bytes to a lzip file.
+
+ * Useful data added by the user; a cryptographically secure hash, a
+ description of file contents, etc. It is safe to append any amount of
+ text to a lzip file as long as none of the first four bytes of the text
+ match the corresponding byte in the string "LZIP", and the text does
+ not contain any zero bytes (null characters). Nonzero bytes and zero
+ bytes can't be safely mixed in trailing data.
+
+ * Garbage added by some not totally successful copy operation.
+
+ * Malicious data added to the file in order to make its total size and
+ hash value (for a chosen hash) coincide with those of another file.
+
+ * In rare cases, trailing data could be the corrupt header of another
+ member. In multimember or concatenated files the probability of
+ corruption happening in the magic bytes is 5 times smaller than the
+ probability of getting a false positive caused by the corruption of the
+ integrity information itself. Therefore it can be considered to be
+ below the noise level. Additionally, the test used by clzip to
+ discriminate trailing data from a corrupt header has a Hamming
+ distance (HD) of 3, and the 3 bit flips must happen in different magic
+ bytes for the test to fail. In any case, the option '--trailing-error'
+ guarantees that any corrupt header will be detected.
+
+ Trailing data are in no way part of the lzip file format, but tools
+reading lzip files are expected to behave as correctly and usefully as
+possible in the presence of trailing data.
+
+ Trailing data can be safely ignored in most cases. In some cases, like
+that of user-added data, they are expected to be ignored. In those cases
+where a file containing trailing data must be rejected, the option
+'--trailing-error' can be used. *Note --trailing-error::.
+
+
+File: clzip.info, Node: Examples, Next: Problems, Prev: Trailing data, Up: Top
+
+9 A small tutorial with examples
+********************************
+
+WARNING! Even if clzip is bug-free, other causes may result in a corrupt
+compressed file (bugs in the system libraries, memory errors, etc).
+Therefore, if the data you are going to compress are important, give the
+option '--keep' to clzip and don't remove the original file until you
+verify the compressed file with a command like
+'clzip -cd file.lz | cmp file -'. Most RAM errors happening during
+compression can only be detected by comparing the compressed file with the
+original because the corruption happens before clzip compresses the RAM
+contents, resulting in a valid compressed file containing wrong data.
+
+
+Example 1: Extract all the files from archive 'foo.tar.lz'.
+
+ tar -xf foo.tar.lz
+ or
+ clzip -cd foo.tar.lz | tar -xf -
+
+
+Example 2: Replace a regular file with its compressed version 'file.lz' and
+show the compression ratio.
+
+ clzip -v file
+
+
+Example 3: Like example 1 but the created 'file.lz' is multimember with a
+member size of 1 MiB. The compression ratio is not shown.
+
+ clzip -b 1MiB file
+
+
+Example 4: Restore a regular file from its compressed version 'file.lz'. If
+the operation is successful, 'file.lz' is removed.
+
+ clzip -d file.lz
+
+
+Example 5: Verify the integrity of the compressed file 'file.lz' and show
+status.
+
+ clzip -tv file.lz
+
+
+Example 6: Compress a whole device in /dev/sdc and send the output to
+'file.lz'.
+
+ clzip -c /dev/sdc > file.lz
+ or
+ clzip /dev/sdc -o file.lz
+
+
+Example 7: The right way of concatenating the decompressed output of two or
+more compressed files. *Note Trailing data::.
+
+ Don't do this
+ cat file1.lz file2.lz file3.lz | clzip -d -
+ Do this instead
+ clzip -cd file1.lz file2.lz file3.lz
+
+
+Example 8: Decompress 'file.lz' partially until 10 KiB of decompressed data
+are produced.
+
+ clzip -cd file.lz | dd bs=1024 count=10
+
+
+Example 9: Decompress 'file.lz' partially from decompressed byte at offset
+10000 to decompressed byte at offset 14999 (5000 bytes are produced).
+
+ clzip -cd file.lz | dd bs=1000 skip=10 count=5
+
+
+Example 10: Create a multivolume compressed tar archive with a volume size
+of 1440 KiB.
+
+ tar -c some_directory | clzip -S 1440KiB -o volume_name -
+
+
+Example 11: Extract a multivolume compressed tar archive.
+
+ clzip -cd volume_name*.lz | tar -xf -
+
+
+Example 12: Create a multivolume compressed backup of a large database file
+with a volume size of 650 MB, where each volume is a multimember file with
+a member size of 32 MiB.
+
+ clzip -b 32MiB -S 650MB big_db
+
+
+File: clzip.info, Node: Problems, Next: Reference source code, Prev: Examples, Up: Top
+
+10 Reporting bugs
+*****************
+
+There are probably bugs in clzip. There are certainly errors and omissions
+in this manual. If you report them, they will get fixed. If you don't, no
+one will ever know about them and they will remain unfixed for all
+eternity, if not longer.
+
+ If you find a bug in clzip, please send electronic mail to
+<lzip-bug@nongnu.org>. Include the version number, which you can find by
+running 'clzip --version'.
+
+
+File: clzip.info, Node: Reference source code, Next: Concept index, Prev: Problems, Up: Top
+
+Appendix A Reference source code
+********************************
+
+/* Lzd - Educational decompressor for the lzip format
+ Copyright (C) 2013-2021 Antonio Diaz Diaz.
+
+ This program is free software. Redistribution and use in source and
+ binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided
+ that the following conditions are met:
+
+ 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ notice, this list of conditions, and the following disclaimer.
+
+ 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ notice, this list of conditions, and the following disclaimer in the
+ documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+
+ This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
+*/
+/*
+ Exit status: 0 for a normal exit, 1 for environmental problems
+ (file not found, invalid flags, I/O errors, etc), 2 to indicate a
+ corrupt or invalid input file.
+*/
+
+#include <algorithm>
+#include <cerrno>
+#include <cstdio>
+#include <cstdlib>
+#include <cstring>
+#include <stdint.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#if defined(__MSVCRT__) || defined(__OS2__) || defined(__DJGPP__)
+#include <fcntl.h>
+#include <io.h>
+#endif
+
+
+class State
+ {
+ int st;
+
+public:
+ enum { states = 12 };
+ State() : st( 0 ) {}
+ int operator()() const { return st; }
+ bool is_char() const { return st < 7; }
+
+ void set_char()
+ {
+ const int next[states] = { 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 4, 5 };
+ st = next[st];
+ }
+ void set_match() { st = ( st < 7 ) ? 7 : 10; }
+ void set_rep() { st = ( st < 7 ) ? 8 : 11; }
+ void set_short_rep() { st = ( st < 7 ) ? 9 : 11; }
+ };
+
+
+enum {
+ min_dictionary_size = 1 << 12,
+ max_dictionary_size = 1 << 29,
+ literal_context_bits = 3,
+ literal_pos_state_bits = 0, // not used
+ pos_state_bits = 2,
+ pos_states = 1 << pos_state_bits,
+ pos_state_mask = pos_states - 1,
+
+ len_states = 4,
+ dis_slot_bits = 6,
+ start_dis_model = 4,
+ end_dis_model = 14,
+ modeled_distances = 1 << ( end_dis_model / 2 ), // 128
+ dis_align_bits = 4,
+ dis_align_size = 1 << dis_align_bits,
+
+ len_low_bits = 3,
+ len_mid_bits = 3,
+ len_high_bits = 8,
+ len_low_symbols = 1 << len_low_bits,
+ len_mid_symbols = 1 << len_mid_bits,
+ len_high_symbols = 1 << len_high_bits,
+ max_len_symbols = len_low_symbols + len_mid_symbols + len_high_symbols,
+
+ min_match_len = 2, // must be 2
+
+ bit_model_move_bits = 5,
+ bit_model_total_bits = 11,
+ bit_model_total = 1 << bit_model_total_bits };
+
+struct Bit_model
+ {
+ int probability;
+ Bit_model() : probability( bit_model_total / 2 ) {}
+ };
+
+struct Len_model
+ {
+ Bit_model choice1;
+ Bit_model choice2;
+ Bit_model bm_low[pos_states][len_low_symbols];
+ Bit_model bm_mid[pos_states][len_mid_symbols];
+ Bit_model bm_high[len_high_symbols];
+ };
+
+
+class CRC32
+ {
+ uint32_t data[256]; // Table of CRCs of all 8-bit messages.
+
+public:
+ CRC32()
+ {
+ for( unsigned n = 0; n < 256; ++n )
+ {
+ unsigned c = n;
+ for( int k = 0; k < 8; ++k )
+ { if( c & 1 ) c = 0xEDB88320U ^ ( c >> 1 ); else c >>= 1; }
+ data[n] = c;
+ }
+ }
+
+ void update_buf( uint32_t & crc, const uint8_t * const buffer,
+ const int size ) const
+ {
+ for( int i = 0; i < size; ++i )
+ crc = data[(crc^buffer[i])&0xFF] ^ ( crc >> 8 );
+ }
+ };
+
+const CRC32 crc32;
+
+
+typedef uint8_t Lzip_header[6]; // 0-3 magic bytes
+ // 4 version
+ // 5 coded dictionary size
+typedef uint8_t Lzip_trailer[20];
+ // 0-3 CRC32 of the uncompressed data
+ // 4-11 size of the uncompressed data
+ // 12-19 member size including header and trailer
+
+class Range_decoder
+ {
+ unsigned long long member_pos;
+ uint32_t code;
+ uint32_t range;
+
+public:
+ Range_decoder() : member_pos( 6 ), code( 0 ), range( 0xFFFFFFFFU )
+ {
+ for( int i = 0; i < 5; ++i ) code = ( code << 8 ) | get_byte();
+ }
+
+ uint8_t get_byte() { ++member_pos; return std::getc( stdin ); }
+ unsigned long long member_position() const { return member_pos; }
+
+ unsigned decode( const int num_bits )
+ {
+ unsigned symbol = 0;
+ for( int i = num_bits; i > 0; --i )
+ {
+ range >>= 1;
+ symbol <<= 1;
+ if( code >= range ) { code -= range; symbol |= 1; }
+ if( range <= 0x00FFFFFFU ) // normalize
+ { range <<= 8; code = ( code << 8 ) | get_byte(); }
+ }
+ return symbol;
+ }
+
+ unsigned decode_bit( Bit_model & bm )
+ {
+ unsigned symbol;
+ const uint32_t bound = ( range >> bit_model_total_bits ) * bm.probability;
+ if( code < bound )
+ {
+ range = bound;
+ bm.probability +=
+ ( bit_model_total - bm.probability ) >> bit_model_move_bits;
+ symbol = 0;
+ }
+ else
+ {
+ range -= bound;
+ code -= bound;
+ bm.probability -= bm.probability >> bit_model_move_bits;
+ symbol = 1;
+ }
+ if( range <= 0x00FFFFFFU ) // normalize
+ { range <<= 8; code = ( code << 8 ) | get_byte(); }
+ return symbol;
+ }
+
+ unsigned decode_tree( Bit_model bm[], const int num_bits )
+ {
+ unsigned symbol = 1;
+ for( int i = 0; i < num_bits; ++i )
+ symbol = ( symbol << 1 ) | decode_bit( bm[symbol] );
+ return symbol - ( 1 << num_bits );
+ }
+
+ unsigned decode_tree_reversed( Bit_model bm[], const int num_bits )
+ {
+ unsigned symbol = decode_tree( bm, num_bits );
+ unsigned reversed_symbol = 0;
+ for( int i = 0; i < num_bits; ++i )
+ {
+ reversed_symbol = ( reversed_symbol << 1 ) | ( symbol & 1 );
+ symbol >>= 1;
+ }
+ return reversed_symbol;
+ }
+
+ unsigned decode_matched( Bit_model bm[], const unsigned match_byte )
+ {
+ unsigned symbol = 1;
+ for( int i = 7; i >= 0; --i )
+ {
+ const unsigned match_bit = ( match_byte >> i ) & 1;
+ const unsigned bit = decode_bit( bm[symbol+(match_bit<<8)+0x100] );
+ symbol = ( symbol << 1 ) | bit;
+ if( match_bit != bit )
+ {
+ while( symbol < 0x100 )
+ symbol = ( symbol << 1 ) | decode_bit( bm[symbol] );
+ break;
+ }
+ }
+ return symbol & 0xFF;
+ }
+
+ unsigned decode_len( Len_model & lm, const int pos_state )
+ {
+ if( decode_bit( lm.choice1 ) == 0 )
+ return decode_tree( lm.bm_low[pos_state], len_low_bits );
+ if( decode_bit( lm.choice2 ) == 0 )
+ return len_low_symbols +
+ decode_tree( lm.bm_mid[pos_state], len_mid_bits );
+ return len_low_symbols + len_mid_symbols +
+ decode_tree( lm.bm_high, len_high_bits );
+ }
+ };
+
+
+class LZ_decoder
+ {
+ unsigned long long partial_data_pos;
+ Range_decoder rdec;
+ const unsigned dictionary_size;
+ uint8_t * const buffer; // output buffer
+ unsigned pos; // current pos in buffer
+ unsigned stream_pos; // first byte not yet written to stdout
+ uint32_t crc_;
+ bool pos_wrapped;
+
+ void flush_data();
+
+ uint8_t peek( const unsigned distance ) const
+ {
+ if( pos > distance ) return buffer[pos - distance - 1];
+ if( pos_wrapped ) return buffer[dictionary_size + pos - distance - 1];
+ return 0; // prev_byte of first byte
+ }
+
+ void put_byte( const uint8_t b )
+ {
+ buffer[pos] = b;
+ if( ++pos >= dictionary_size ) flush_data();
+ }
+
+public:
+ explicit LZ_decoder( const unsigned dict_size )
+ :
+ partial_data_pos( 0 ),
+ dictionary_size( dict_size ),
+ buffer( new uint8_t[dictionary_size] ),
+ pos( 0 ),
+ stream_pos( 0 ),
+ crc_( 0xFFFFFFFFU ),
+ pos_wrapped( false )
+ {}
+
+ ~LZ_decoder() { delete[] buffer; }
+
+ unsigned crc() const { return crc_ ^ 0xFFFFFFFFU; }
+ unsigned long long data_position() const
+ { return partial_data_pos + pos; }
+ uint8_t get_byte() { return rdec.get_byte(); }
+ unsigned long long member_position() const
+ { return rdec.member_position(); }
+
+ bool decode_member();
+ };
+
+
+void LZ_decoder::flush_data()
+ {
+ if( pos > stream_pos )
+ {
+ const unsigned size = pos - stream_pos;
+ crc32.update_buf( crc_, buffer + stream_pos, size );
+ if( std::fwrite( buffer + stream_pos, 1, size, stdout ) != size )
+ { std::fprintf( stderr, "Write error: %s\n", std::strerror( errno ) );
+ std::exit( 1 ); }
+ if( pos >= dictionary_size )
+ { partial_data_pos += pos; pos = 0; pos_wrapped = true; }
+ stream_pos = pos;
+ }
+ }
+
+
+bool LZ_decoder::decode_member() // Returns false if error
+ {
+ Bit_model bm_literal[1<<literal_context_bits][0x300];
+ Bit_model bm_match[State::states][pos_states];
+ Bit_model bm_rep[State::states];
+ Bit_model bm_rep0[State::states];
+ Bit_model bm_rep1[State::states];
+ Bit_model bm_rep2[State::states];
+ Bit_model bm_len[State::states][pos_states];
+ Bit_model bm_dis_slot[len_states][1<<dis_slot_bits];
+ Bit_model bm_dis[modeled_distances-end_dis_model+1];
+ Bit_model bm_align[dis_align_size];
+ Len_model match_len_model;
+ Len_model rep_len_model;
+ unsigned rep0 = 0; // rep[0-3] latest four distances
+ unsigned rep1 = 0; // used for efficient coding of
+ unsigned rep2 = 0; // repeated distances
+ unsigned rep3 = 0;
+ State state;
+
+ while( !std::feof( stdin ) && !std::ferror( stdin ) )
+ {
+ const int pos_state = data_position() & pos_state_mask;
+ if( rdec.decode_bit( bm_match[state()][pos_state] ) == 0 ) // 1st bit
+ {
+ // literal byte
+ const uint8_t prev_byte = peek( 0 );
+ const int literal_state = prev_byte >> ( 8 - literal_context_bits );
+ Bit_model * const bm = bm_literal[literal_state];
+ if( state.is_char() )
+ put_byte( rdec.decode_tree( bm, 8 ) );
+ else
+ put_byte( rdec.decode_matched( bm, peek( rep0 ) ) );
+ state.set_char();
+ continue;
+ }
+ // match or repeated match
+ int len;
+ if( rdec.decode_bit( bm_rep[state()] ) != 0 ) // 2nd bit
+ {
+ if( rdec.decode_bit( bm_rep0[state()] ) == 0 ) // 3rd bit
+ {
+ if( rdec.decode_bit( bm_len[state()][pos_state] ) == 0 ) // 4th bit
+ { state.set_short_rep(); put_byte( peek( rep0 ) ); continue; }
+ }
+ else
+ {
+ unsigned distance;
+ if( rdec.decode_bit( bm_rep1[state()] ) == 0 ) // 4th bit
+ distance = rep1;
+ else
+ {
+ if( rdec.decode_bit( bm_rep2[state()] ) == 0 ) // 5th bit
+ distance = rep2;
+ else
+ { distance = rep3; rep3 = rep2; }
+ rep2 = rep1;
+ }
+ rep1 = rep0;
+ rep0 = distance;
+ }
+ state.set_rep();
+ len = min_match_len + rdec.decode_len( rep_len_model, pos_state );
+ }
+ else // match
+ {
+ rep3 = rep2; rep2 = rep1; rep1 = rep0;
+ len = min_match_len + rdec.decode_len( match_len_model, pos_state );
+ const int len_state = std::min( len - min_match_len, len_states - 1 );
+ rep0 = rdec.decode_tree( bm_dis_slot[len_state], dis_slot_bits );
+ if( rep0 >= start_dis_model )
+ {
+ const unsigned dis_slot = rep0;
+ const int direct_bits = ( dis_slot >> 1 ) - 1;
+ rep0 = ( 2 | ( dis_slot & 1 ) ) << direct_bits;
+ if( dis_slot < end_dis_model )
+ rep0 += rdec.decode_tree_reversed( bm_dis + ( rep0 - dis_slot ),
+ direct_bits );
+ else
+ {
+ rep0 +=
+ rdec.decode( direct_bits - dis_align_bits ) << dis_align_bits;
+ rep0 += rdec.decode_tree_reversed( bm_align, dis_align_bits );
+ if( rep0 == 0xFFFFFFFFU ) // marker found
+ {
+ flush_data();
+ return ( len == min_match_len ); // End Of Stream marker
+ }
+ }
+ }
+ state.set_match();
+ if( rep0 >= dictionary_size || ( rep0 >= pos && !pos_wrapped ) )
+ { flush_data(); return false; }
+ }
+ for( int i = 0; i < len; ++i ) put_byte( peek( rep0 ) );
+ }
+ flush_data();
+ return false;
+ }
+
+
+int main( const int argc, const char * const argv[] )
+ {
+ if( argc > 2 || ( argc == 2 && std::strcmp( argv[1], "-d" ) != 0 ) )
+ {
+ std::printf(
+ "Lzd %s - Educational decompressor for the lzip format.\n"
+ "Study the source to learn how a lzip decompressor works.\n"
+ "See the lzip manual for an explanation of the code.\n"
+ "\nUsage: %s [-d] < file.lz > file\n"
+ "Lzd decompresses from standard input to standard output.\n"
+ "\nCopyright (C) 2021 Antonio Diaz Diaz.\n"
+ "License 2-clause BSD.\n"
+ "This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.\n"
+ "There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.\n"
+ "Report bugs to lzip-bug@nongnu.org\n"
+ "Lzd home page: http://www.nongnu.org/lzip/lzd.html\n",
+ PROGVERSION, argv[0] );
+ return 0;
+ }
+
+#if defined(__MSVCRT__) || defined(__OS2__) || defined(__DJGPP__)
+ setmode( STDIN_FILENO, O_BINARY );
+ setmode( STDOUT_FILENO, O_BINARY );
+#endif
+
+ for( bool first_member = true; ; first_member = false )
+ {
+ Lzip_header header; // verify header
+ for( int i = 0; i < 6; ++i ) header[i] = std::getc( stdin );
+ if( std::feof( stdin ) || std::memcmp( header, "LZIP\x01", 5 ) != 0 )
+ {
+ if( first_member )
+ { std::fputs( "Bad magic number (file not in lzip format).\n",
+ stderr ); return 2; }
+ break; // ignore trailing data
+ }
+ unsigned dict_size = 1 << ( header[5] & 0x1F );
+ dict_size -= ( dict_size / 16 ) * ( ( header[5] >> 5 ) & 7 );
+ if( dict_size < min_dictionary_size || dict_size > max_dictionary_size )
+ { std::fputs( "Invalid dictionary size in member header.\n", stderr );
+ return 2; }
+
+ LZ_decoder decoder( dict_size ); // decode LZMA stream
+ if( !decoder.decode_member() )
+ { std::fputs( "Data error\n", stderr ); return 2; }
+
+ Lzip_trailer trailer; // verify trailer
+ for( int i = 0; i < 20; ++i ) trailer[i] = decoder.get_byte();
+ int retval = 0;
+ unsigned crc = 0;
+ for( int i = 3; i >= 0; --i ) crc = ( crc << 8 ) + trailer[i];
+ if( crc != decoder.crc() )
+ { std::fputs( "CRC mismatch\n", stderr ); retval = 2; }
+
+ unsigned long long data_size = 0;
+ for( int i = 11; i >= 4; --i )
+ data_size = ( data_size << 8 ) + trailer[i];
+ if( data_size != decoder.data_position() )
+ { std::fputs( "Data size mismatch\n", stderr ); retval = 2; }
+
+ unsigned long long member_size = 0;
+ for( int i = 19; i >= 12; --i )
+ member_size = ( member_size << 8 ) + trailer[i];
+ if( member_size != decoder.member_position() )
+ { std::fputs( "Member size mismatch\n", stderr ); retval = 2; }
+ if( retval ) return retval;
+ }
+
+ if( std::fclose( stdout ) != 0 )
+ { std::fprintf( stderr, "Error closing stdout: %s\n",
+ std::strerror( errno ) ); return 1; }
+ return 0;
+ }
+
+
+File: clzip.info, Node: Concept index, Prev: Reference source code, Up: Top
+
+Concept index
+*************
+
+
+* Menu:
+
+* algorithm: Algorithm. (line 6)
+* bugs: Problems. (line 6)
+* examples: Examples. (line 6)
+* file format: File format. (line 6)
+* format of the LZMA stream: Stream format. (line 6)
+* getting help: Problems. (line 6)
+* introduction: Introduction. (line 6)
+* invoking: Invoking clzip. (line 6)
+* options: Invoking clzip. (line 6)
+* output: Output. (line 6)
+* quality assurance: Quality assurance. (line 6)
+* reference source code: Reference source code. (line 6)
+* trailing data: Trailing data. (line 6)
+* usage: Invoking clzip. (line 6)
+* version: Invoking clzip. (line 6)
+
+
+
+Tag Table:
+Node: Top210
+Node: Introduction1211
+Node: Output7184
+Node: Invoking clzip8787
+Ref: --trailing-error9585
+Node: Quality assurance18586
+Node: File format27545
+Ref: coded-dict-size28836
+Node: Algorithm29972
+Node: Stream format33379
+Ref: what-is-coded35749
+Node: Trailing data44618
+Node: Examples46881
+Ref: concat-example48493
+Node: Problems49563
+Node: Reference source code50099
+Node: Concept index64964
+
+End Tag Table
+
+
+Local Variables:
+coding: iso-8859-15
+End:
diff --git a/doc/clzip.texi b/doc/clzip.texi
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..caa40fc
--- /dev/null
+++ b/doc/clzip.texi
@@ -0,0 +1,1781 @@
+\input texinfo @c -*-texinfo-*-
+@c %**start of header
+@setfilename clzip.info
+@documentencoding ISO-8859-15
+@settitle Clzip Manual
+@finalout
+@c %**end of header
+
+@set UPDATED 4 January 2021
+@set VERSION 1.12
+
+@dircategory Data Compression
+@direntry
+* Clzip: (clzip). LZMA lossless data compressor
+@end direntry
+
+
+@ifnothtml
+@titlepage
+@title Clzip
+@subtitle LZMA lossless data compressor
+@subtitle for Clzip version @value{VERSION}, @value{UPDATED}
+@author by Antonio Diaz Diaz
+
+@page
+@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
+@end titlepage
+
+@contents
+@end ifnothtml
+
+@ifnottex
+@node Top
+@top
+
+This manual is for Clzip (version @value{VERSION}, @value{UPDATED}).
+
+@menu
+* Introduction:: Purpose and features of clzip
+* Output:: Meaning of clzip's output
+* Invoking clzip:: Command line interface
+* Quality assurance:: Design, development, and testing of lzip
+* File format:: Detailed format of the compressed file
+* Algorithm:: How clzip compresses the data
+* Stream format:: Format of the LZMA stream in lzip files
+* Trailing data:: Extra data appended to the file
+* Examples:: A small tutorial with examples
+* Problems:: Reporting bugs
+* Reference source code:: Source code illustrating stream format
+* Concept index:: Index of concepts
+@end menu
+
+@sp 1
+Copyright @copyright{} 2010-2021 Antonio Diaz Diaz.
+
+This manual is free documentation: you have unlimited permission to copy,
+distribute, and modify it.
+@end ifnottex
+
+
+@node Introduction
+@chapter Introduction
+@cindex introduction
+
+@uref{http://www.nongnu.org/lzip/clzip.html,,Clzip}
+is a C language version of lzip, fully compatible with @w{lzip 1.4} or
+newer. As clzip is written in C, it may be easier to integrate in
+applications like package managers, embedded devices, or systems lacking a
+C++ compiler.
+
+@uref{http://www.nongnu.org/lzip/lzip.html,,Lzip}
+is a lossless data compressor with a user interface similar to the one
+of gzip or bzip2. Lzip uses a simplified form of the 'Lempel-Ziv-Markov
+chain-Algorithm' (LZMA) stream format, chosen to maximize safety and
+interoperability. Lzip can compress about as fast as gzip @w{(lzip -0)} or
+compress most files more than bzip2 @w{(lzip -9)}. Decompression speed is
+intermediate between gzip and bzip2. Lzip is better than gzip and bzip2 from
+a data recovery perspective. Lzip has been designed, written, and tested
+with great care to replace gzip and bzip2 as the standard general-purpose
+compressed format for unix-like systems.
+
+For compressing/decompressing large files on multiprocessor machines
+@uref{http://www.nongnu.org/lzip/manual/plzip_manual.html,,plzip} can be
+much faster than lzip at the cost of a slightly reduced compression ratio.
+@ifnothtml
+@xref{Top,plzip manual,,plzip}.
+@end ifnothtml
+
+For creation and manipulation of compressed tar archives
+@uref{http://www.nongnu.org/lzip/manual/tarlz_manual.html,,tarlz} can be
+more efficient than using tar and plzip because tarlz is able to keep the
+alignment between tar members and lzip members.
+@ifnothtml
+@xref{Top,tarlz manual,,tarlz}.
+@end ifnothtml
+
+The lzip file format is designed for data sharing and long-term archiving,
+taking into account both data integrity and decoder availability:
+
+@itemize @bullet
+@item
+The lzip format provides very safe integrity checking and some data
+recovery means. The program
+@uref{http://www.nongnu.org/lzip/manual/lziprecover_manual.html#Data-safety,,lziprecover}
+can repair bit flip errors (one of the most common forms of data corruption)
+in lzip files, and provides data recovery capabilities, including
+error-checked merging of damaged copies of a file.
+@ifnothtml
+@xref{Data safety,,,lziprecover}.
+@end ifnothtml
+
+@item
+The lzip format is as simple as possible (but not simpler). The lzip
+manual provides the source code of a simple decompressor along with a
+detailed explanation of how it works, so that with the only help of the
+lzip manual it would be possible for a digital archaeologist to extract
+the data from a lzip file long after quantum computers eventually
+render LZMA obsolete.
+
+@item
+Additionally the lzip reference implementation is copylefted, which
+guarantees that it will remain free forever.
+@end itemize
+
+A nice feature of the lzip format is that a corrupt byte is easier to repair
+the nearer it is from the beginning of the file. Therefore, with the help of
+lziprecover, losing an entire archive just because of a corrupt byte near
+the beginning is a thing of the past.
+
+The member trailer stores the 32-bit CRC of the original data, the size
+of the original data, and the size of the member. These values, together
+with the end-of-stream marker, provide a 3 factor integrity checking
+which guarantees that the decompressed version of the data is identical
+to the original. This guards against corruption of the compressed data,
+and against undetected bugs in clzip (hopefully very unlikely). The
+chances of data corruption going undetected are microscopic. Be aware,
+though, that the check occurs upon decompression, so it can only tell
+you that something is wrong. It can't help you recover the original
+uncompressed data.
+
+Clzip uses the same well-defined exit status values used by bzip2, which
+makes it safer than compressors returning ambiguous warning values (like
+gzip) when it is used as a back end for other programs like tar or zutils.
+
+Clzip will automatically use for each file the largest dictionary size that
+does not exceed neither the file size nor the limit given. Keep in mind that
+the decompression memory requirement is affected at compression time by the
+choice of dictionary size limit.
+
+The amount of memory required for compression is about 1 or 2 times the
+dictionary size limit (1 if input file size is less than dictionary size
+limit, else 2) plus 9 times the dictionary size really used. The option
+@samp{-0} is special and only requires about @w{1.5 MiB} at most. The
+amount of memory required for decompression is about @w{46 kB} larger
+than the dictionary size really used.
+
+When compressing, clzip replaces every file given in the command line
+with a compressed version of itself, with the name "original_name.lz".
+When decompressing, clzip attempts to guess the name for the decompressed
+file from that of the compressed file as follows:
+
+@multitable {anyothername} {becomes} {anyothername.out}
+@item filename.lz @tab becomes @tab filename
+@item filename.tlz @tab becomes @tab filename.tar
+@item anyothername @tab becomes @tab anyothername.out
+@end multitable
+
+(De)compressing a file is much like copying or moving it; therefore clzip
+preserves the access and modification dates, permissions, and, when
+possible, ownership of the file just as @samp{cp -p} does. (If the user ID or
+the group ID can't be duplicated, the file permission bits S_ISUID and
+S_ISGID are cleared).
+
+Clzip is able to read from some types of non-regular files if either the
+option @samp{-c} or the option @samp{-o} is specified.
+
+Clzip will refuse to read compressed data from a terminal or write compressed
+data to a terminal, as this would be entirely incomprehensible and might
+leave the terminal in an abnormal state.
+
+Clzip will correctly decompress a file which is the concatenation of two or
+more compressed files. The result is the concatenation of the corresponding
+decompressed files. Integrity testing of concatenated compressed files is
+also supported.
+
+Clzip can produce multimember files, and lziprecover can safely recover the
+undamaged members in case of file damage. Clzip can also split the compressed
+output in volumes of a given size, even when reading from standard input.
+This allows the direct creation of multivolume compressed tar archives.
+
+Clzip is able to compress and decompress streams of unlimited size by
+automatically creating multimember output. The members so created are large,
+about @w{2 PiB} each.
+
+
+@node Output
+@chapter Meaning of clzip's output
+@cindex output
+
+The output of clzip looks like this:
+
+@example
+clzip -v foo
+ foo: 6.676:1, 14.98% ratio, 85.02% saved, 450560 in, 67493 out.
+
+clzip -tvvv foo.lz
+ foo.lz: 6.676:1, 14.98% ratio, 85.02% saved. 450560 out, 67493 in. ok
+@end example
+
+The meaning of each field is as follows:
+
+@table @code
+@item N:1
+The compression ratio @w{(uncompressed_size / compressed_size)}, shown as
+@w{N to 1}.
+
+@item ratio
+The inverse compression ratio @w{(compressed_size / uncompressed_size)},
+shown as a percentage. A decimal ratio is easily obtained by moving the
+decimal point two places to the left; @w{14.98% = 0.1498}.
+
+@item saved
+The space saved by compression @w{(1 - ratio)}, shown as a percentage.
+
+@item in
+Size of the input data. This is the uncompressed size when compressing, or
+the compressed size when decompressing or testing. Note that clzip always
+prints the uncompressed size before the compressed size when compressing,
+decompressing, testing, or listing.
+
+@item out
+Size of the output data. This is the compressed size when compressing, or
+the decompressed size when decompressing or testing.
+
+@end table
+
+When decompressing or testing at verbosity level 4 (-vvvv), the dictionary
+size used to compress the file and the CRC32 of the uncompressed data are
+also shown.
+
+LANGUAGE NOTE: Uncompressed = not compressed = plain data; it may never have
+been compressed. Decompressed is used to refer to data which have undergone
+the process of decompression.
+
+
+@node Invoking clzip
+@chapter Invoking clzip
+@cindex invoking
+@cindex options
+@cindex usage
+@cindex version
+
+The format for running clzip is:
+
+@example
+clzip [@var{options}] [@var{files}]
+@end example
+
+@noindent
+If no file names are specified, clzip compresses (or decompresses) from
+standard input to standard output. A hyphen @samp{-} used as a @var{file}
+argument means standard input. It can be mixed with other @var{files} and is
+read just once, the first time it appears in the command line.
+
+clzip supports the following
+@uref{http://www.nongnu.org/arg-parser/manual/arg_parser_manual.html#Argument-syntax,,options}:
+@ifnothtml
+@xref{Argument syntax,,,arg_parser}.
+@end ifnothtml
+
+@table @code
+@item -h
+@itemx --help
+Print an informative help message describing the options and exit.
+
+@item -V
+@itemx --version
+Print the version number of clzip on the standard output and exit.
+This version number should be included in all bug reports.
+
+@anchor{--trailing-error}
+@item -a
+@itemx --trailing-error
+Exit with error status 2 if any remaining input is detected after
+decompressing the last member. Such remaining input is usually trailing
+garbage that can be safely ignored. @xref{concat-example}.
+
+@item -b @var{bytes}
+@itemx --member-size=@var{bytes}
+When compressing, set the member size limit to @var{bytes}. It is advisable
+to keep members smaller than RAM size so that they can be repaired with
+lziprecover in case of corruption. A small member size may degrade
+compression ratio, so use it only when needed. Valid values range from
+@w{100 kB} to @w{2 PiB}. Defaults to @w{2 PiB}.
+
+@item -c
+@itemx --stdout
+Compress or decompress to standard output; keep input files unchanged. If
+compressing several files, each file is compressed independently. (The
+output consists of a sequence of independently compressed members). This
+option (or @samp{-o}) is needed when reading from a named pipe (fifo) or
+from a device. Use it also to recover as much of the decompressed data as
+possible when decompressing a corrupt file. @samp{-c} overrides @samp{-o}
+and @samp{-S}. @samp{-c} has no effect when testing or listing.
+
+@item -d
+@itemx --decompress
+Decompress the files specified. If a file does not exist or can't be
+opened, clzip continues decompressing the rest of the files. If a file
+fails to decompress, or is a terminal, clzip exits immediately without
+decompressing the rest of the files.
+
+@item -f
+@itemx --force
+Force overwrite of output files.
+
+@item -F
+@itemx --recompress
+When compressing, force re-compression of files whose name already has
+the @samp{.lz} or @samp{.tlz} suffix.
+
+@item -k
+@itemx --keep
+Keep (don't delete) input files during compression or decompression.
+
+@item -l
+@itemx --list
+Print the uncompressed size, compressed size, and percentage saved of the
+files specified. Trailing data are ignored. The values produced are correct
+even for multimember files. If more than one file is given, a final line
+containing the cumulative sizes is printed. With @samp{-v}, the dictionary
+size, the number of members in the file, and the amount of trailing data (if
+any) are also printed. With @samp{-vv}, the positions and sizes of each
+member in multimember files are also printed.
+
+@samp{-lq} can be used to verify quickly (without decompressing) the
+structural integrity of the files specified. (Use @samp{--test} to verify
+the data integrity). @samp{-alq} additionally verifies that none of the
+files specified contain trailing data.
+
+@item -m @var{bytes}
+@itemx --match-length=@var{bytes}
+When compressing, set the match length limit in bytes. After a match
+this long is found, the search is finished. Valid values range from 5 to
+273. Larger values usually give better compression ratios but longer
+compression times.
+
+@item -o @var{file}
+@itemx --output=@var{file}
+If @samp{-c} has not been also specified, write the (de)compressed output to
+@var{file}; keep input files unchanged. If compressing several files, each
+file is compressed independently. (The output consists of a sequence of
+independently compressed members). This option (or @samp{-c}) is needed when
+reading from a named pipe (fifo) or from a device. @w{@samp{-o -}} is
+equivalent to @samp{-c}. @samp{-o} has no effect when testing or listing.
+
+In order to keep backward compatibility with clzip versions prior to 1.12,
+when compressing from standard input and no other file names are given, the
+extension @samp{.lz} is appended to @var{file} unless it already ends in
+@samp{.lz} or @samp{.tlz}. This feature will be removed in a future version
+of clzip. Meanwhile, redirection may be used instead of @samp{-o} to write
+the compressed output to a file without the extension @samp{.lz} in its
+name: @w{@samp{clzip < file > foo}}.
+
+When compressing and splitting the output in volumes, @var{file} is used as
+a prefix, and several files named @samp{@var{file}00001.lz},
+@samp{@var{file}00002.lz}, etc, are created. In this case, only one input
+file is allowed.
+
+@item -q
+@itemx --quiet
+Quiet operation. Suppress all messages.
+
+@item -s @var{bytes}
+@itemx --dictionary-size=@var{bytes}
+When compressing, set the dictionary size limit in bytes. Clzip will use
+for each file the largest dictionary size that does not exceed neither
+the file size nor this limit. Valid values range from @w{4 KiB} to
+@w{512 MiB}. Values 12 to 29 are interpreted as powers of two, meaning
+2^12 to 2^29 bytes. Dictionary sizes are quantized so that they can be
+coded in just one byte (@pxref{coded-dict-size}). If the size specified
+does not match one of the valid sizes, it will be rounded upwards by
+adding up to @w{(@var{bytes} / 8)} to it.
+
+For maximum compression you should use a dictionary size limit as large
+as possible, but keep in mind that the decompression memory requirement
+is affected at compression time by the choice of dictionary size limit.
+
+@item -S @var{bytes}
+@itemx --volume-size=@var{bytes}
+When compressing, and @samp{-c} has not been also specified, split the
+compressed output into several volume files with names
+@samp{original_name00001.lz}, @samp{original_name00002.lz}, etc, and set the
+volume size limit to @var{bytes}. Input files are kept unchanged. Each
+volume is a complete, maybe multimember, lzip file. A small volume size may
+degrade compression ratio, so use it only when needed. Valid values range
+from @w{100 kB} to @w{4 EiB}.
+
+@item -t
+@itemx --test
+Check integrity of the files specified, but don't decompress them. This
+really performs a trial decompression and throws away the result. Use it
+together with @samp{-v} to see information about the files. If a file
+fails the test, does not exist, can't be opened, or is a terminal, clzip
+continues checking the rest of the files. A final diagnostic is shown at
+verbosity level 1 or higher if any file fails the test when testing
+multiple files.
+
+@item -v
+@itemx --verbose
+Verbose mode.@*
+When compressing, show the compression ratio and size for each file
+processed.@*
+When decompressing or testing, further -v's (up to 4) increase the
+verbosity level, showing status, compression ratio, dictionary size,
+trailer contents (CRC, data size, member size), and up to 6 bytes of
+trailing data (if any) both in hexadecimal and as a string of printable
+ASCII characters.@*
+Two or more @samp{-v} options show the progress of (de)compression.
+
+@item -0 .. -9
+Compression level. Set the compression parameters (dictionary size and
+match length limit) as shown in the table below. The default compression
+level is @samp{-6}, equivalent to @w{@samp{-s8MiB -m36}}. Note that
+@samp{-9} can be much slower than @samp{-0}. These options have no
+effect when decompressing, testing, or listing.
+
+The bidimensional parameter space of LZMA can't be mapped to a linear
+scale optimal for all files. If your files are large, very repetitive,
+etc, you may need to use the options @samp{--dictionary-size} and
+@samp{--match-length} directly to achieve optimal performance.
+
+If several compression levels or @samp{-s} or @samp{-m} options are
+given, the last setting is used. For example @w{@samp{-9 -s64MiB}} is
+equivalent to @w{@samp{-s64MiB -m273}}
+
+@multitable {Level} {Dictionary size (-s)} {Match length limit (-m)}
+@item Level @tab Dictionary size (-s) @tab Match length limit (-m)
+@item -0 @tab 64 KiB @tab 16 bytes
+@item -1 @tab 1 MiB @tab 5 bytes
+@item -2 @tab 1.5 MiB @tab 6 bytes
+@item -3 @tab 2 MiB @tab 8 bytes
+@item -4 @tab 3 MiB @tab 12 bytes
+@item -5 @tab 4 MiB @tab 20 bytes
+@item -6 @tab 8 MiB @tab 36 bytes
+@item -7 @tab 16 MiB @tab 68 bytes
+@item -8 @tab 24 MiB @tab 132 bytes
+@item -9 @tab 32 MiB @tab 273 bytes
+@end multitable
+
+@item --fast
+@itemx --best
+Aliases for GNU gzip compatibility.
+
+@item --loose-trailing
+When decompressing, testing, or listing, allow trailing data whose first
+bytes are so similar to the magic bytes of a lzip header that they can
+be confused with a corrupt header. Use this option if a file triggers a
+"corrupt header" error and the cause is not indeed a corrupt header.
+
+@end table
+
+Numbers given as arguments to options may be followed by a multiplier
+and an optional @samp{B} for "byte".
+
+Table of SI and binary prefixes (unit multipliers):
+
+@multitable {Prefix} {kilobyte (10^3 = 1000)} {|} {Prefix} {kibibyte (2^10 = 1024)}
+@item Prefix @tab Value @tab | @tab Prefix @tab Value
+@item k @tab kilobyte (10^3 = 1000) @tab | @tab Ki @tab kibibyte (2^10 = 1024)
+@item M @tab megabyte (10^6) @tab | @tab Mi @tab mebibyte (2^20)
+@item G @tab gigabyte (10^9) @tab | @tab Gi @tab gibibyte (2^30)
+@item T @tab terabyte (10^12) @tab | @tab Ti @tab tebibyte (2^40)
+@item P @tab petabyte (10^15) @tab | @tab Pi @tab pebibyte (2^50)
+@item E @tab exabyte (10^18) @tab | @tab Ei @tab exbibyte (2^60)
+@item Z @tab zettabyte (10^21) @tab | @tab Zi @tab zebibyte (2^70)
+@item Y @tab yottabyte (10^24) @tab | @tab Yi @tab yobibyte (2^80)
+@end multitable
+
+@sp 1
+Exit status: 0 for a normal exit, 1 for environmental problems (file not
+found, invalid flags, I/O errors, etc), 2 to indicate a corrupt or
+invalid input file, 3 for an internal consistency error (eg, bug) which
+caused clzip to panic.
+
+
+@node Quality assurance
+@chapter Design, development, and testing of lzip
+@cindex quality assurance
+
+There are two ways of constructing a software design: One way is to make it
+so simple that there are obviously no deficiencies and the other way is to
+make it so complicated that there are no obvious deficiencies. The first
+method is far more difficult.@*
+--- C.A.R. Hoare
+
+Lzip is developed by volunteers who lack the resources required for
+extensive testing in all circumstances. It is up to you to test lzip before
+using it in mission-critical applications. However, a compressor like lzip
+is not a toy, and maintaining it is not a hobby. Many people's data depend
+on it. Therefore the lzip file format has been reviewed carefully and is
+believed to be free from negligent design errors.
+
+Lzip has been designed, written, and tested with great care to replace gzip
+and bzip2 as the standard general-purpose compressed format for unix-like
+systems. This chapter describes the lessons learned from these previous
+formats, and their application to the design of lzip.
+
+@sp 1
+@section Format design
+
+When gzip was designed in 1992, computers and operating systems were much
+less capable than they are today. The designers of gzip tried to work around
+some of those limitations, like 8.3 file names, with additional fields in
+the file format.
+
+Today those limitations have mostly disappeared, and the format of gzip has
+proved to be unnecessarily complicated. It includes fields that were never
+used, others that have lost their usefulness, and finally others that have
+become too limited.
+
+Bzip2 was designed 5 years later, and its format is simpler than the one of
+gzip.
+
+Probably the worst defect of the gzip format from the point of view of data
+safety is the variable size of its header. If the byte at offset 3 (flags)
+of a gzip member gets corrupted, it may become difficult to recover the
+data, even if the compressed blocks are intact, because it can't be known
+with certainty where the compressed blocks begin.
+
+By contrast, the header of a lzip member has a fixed length of 6. The LZMA
+stream in a lzip member always starts at offset 6, making it trivial to
+recover the data even if the whole header becomes corrupt.
+
+Bzip2 also provides a header of fixed length and marks the begin and end of
+each compressed block with six magic bytes, making it possible to find the
+compressed blocks even in case of file damage. But bzip2 does not store the
+size of each compressed block, as lzip does.
+
+Lziprecover is able to provide unique data recovery capabilities because the
+lzip format is extraordinarily safe. The simple and safe design of the file
+format complements the embedded error detection provided by the LZMA data
+stream. Any distance larger than the dictionary size acts as a forbidden
+symbol, allowing the decompressor to detect the approximate position of
+errors, and leaving very little work for the check sequence (CRC and data
+sizes) in the detection of errors. Lzip is usually able to detect all
+possible bit flips in the compressed data without resorting to the check
+sequence. It would be difficult to write an automatic recovery tool like
+lziprecover for the gzip format. And, as far as I know, it has never been
+written.
+
+Lzip, like gzip and bzip2, uses a CRC32 to check the integrity of the
+decompressed data because it provides optimal accuracy in the detection of
+errors up to a compressed size of about @w{16 GiB}, a size larger than that
+of most files. In the case of lzip, the additional detection capability of
+the decompressor reduces the probability of undetected errors several
+million times more, resulting in a combined integrity checking optimally
+accurate for any member size produced by lzip. Preliminary results suggest
+that the lzip format is safe enough to be used in critical safety avionics
+systems.
+
+The lzip format is designed for long-term archiving. Therefore it excludes
+any unneeded features that may interfere with the future extraction of the
+decompressed data.
+
+@sp 1
+@subsection Gzip format (mis)features not present in lzip
+
+@table @samp
+@item Multiple algorithms
+
+Gzip provides a CM (Compression Method) field that has never been used
+because it is a bad idea to begin with. New compression methods may require
+additional fields, making it impossible to implement new methods and, at the
+same time, keep the same format. This field does not solve the problem of
+format proliferation; it just makes the problem less obvious.
+
+@item Optional fields in header
+
+Unless special precautions are taken, optional fields are generally a bad
+idea because they produce a header of variable size. The gzip header has 2
+fields that, in addition to being optional, are zero-terminated. This means
+that if any byte inside the field gets zeroed, or if the terminating zero
+gets altered, gzip won't be able to find neither the header CRC nor the
+compressed blocks.
+
+@item Optional CRC for the header
+
+Using an optional CRC for the header is not only a bad idea, it is an error;
+it circumvents the Hamming distance (HD) of the CRC and may prevent the
+extraction of perfectly good data. For example, if the CRC is used and the
+bit enabling it is reset by a bit flip, the header will appear to be intact
+(in spite of being corrupt) while the compressed blocks will appear to be
+totally unrecoverable (in spite of being intact). Very misleading indeed.
+
+@item Metadata
+
+The gzip format stores some metadata, like the modification time of the
+original file or the operating system on which compression took place. This
+complicates reproducible compression (obtaining identical compressed output
+from identical input).
+
+@end table
+
+@subsection Lzip format improvements over gzip and bzip2
+
+@table @samp
+@item 64-bit size field
+
+Probably the most frequently reported shortcoming of the gzip format is that
+it only stores the least significant 32 bits of the uncompressed size. The
+size of any file larger than @w{4 GiB} gets truncated.
+
+Bzip2 does not store the uncompressed size of the file.
+
+The lzip format provides a 64-bit field for the uncompressed size.
+Additionally, lzip produces multimember output automatically when the size
+is too large for a single member, allowing for an unlimited uncompressed
+size.
+
+@item Distributed index
+
+The lzip format provides a distributed index that, among other things, helps
+plzip to decompress several times faster than pigz and helps lziprecover do
+its job. Neither the gzip format nor the bzip2 format do provide an index.
+
+A distributed index is safer and more scalable than a monolithic index. The
+monolithic index introduces a single point of failure in the compressed file
+and may limit the number of members or the total uncompressed size.
+
+@end table
+
+@section Quality of implementation
+
+@table @samp
+@item Accurate and robust error detection
+
+The lzip format provides 3 factor integrity checking and the decompressors
+report mismatches in each factor separately. This way if just one byte in
+one factor fails but the other two factors match the data, it probably means
+that the data are intact and the corruption just affects the mismatching
+factor (CRC or data size) in the check sequence.
+
+@item Multiple implementations
+
+Just like the lzip format provides 3 factor protection against undetected
+data corruption, the development methodology of the lzip family of
+compressors provides 3 factor protection against undetected programming
+errors.
+
+Three related but independent compressor implementations, lzip, clzip, and
+minilzip/lzlib, are developed concurrently. Every stable release of any of
+them is tested to verify that it produces identical output to the other two.
+This guarantees that all three implement the same algorithm, and makes it
+unlikely that any of them may contain serious undiscovered errors. In fact,
+no errors have been discovered in lzip since 2009.
+
+Additionally, the three implementations have been extensively tested with
+@uref{http://www.nongnu.org/lzip/manual/lziprecover_manual.html#Unzcrash,,unzcrash},
+valgrind, and @samp{american fuzzy lop} without finding a single
+vulnerability or false negative.
+@ifnothtml
+@xref{Unzcrash,,,lziprecover}.
+@end ifnothtml
+
+@item Dictionary size
+
+Lzip automatically adapts the dictionary size to the size of each file.
+In addition to reducing the amount of memory required for decompression,
+this feature also minimizes the probability of being affected by RAM errors
+during compression. @c key4_mask
+
+@item Exit status
+
+Returning a warning status of 2 is a design flaw of compress that leaked
+into the design of gzip. Both bzip2 and lzip are free from this flaw.
+
+@end table
+
+
+@node File format
+@chapter File format
+@cindex file format
+
+Perfection is reached, not when there is no longer anything to add, but
+when there is no longer anything to take away.@*
+--- Antoine de Saint-Exupery
+
+@sp 1
+In the diagram below, a box like this:
+
+@verbatim
++---+
+| | <-- the vertical bars might be missing
++---+
+@end verbatim
+
+represents one byte; a box like this:
+
+@verbatim
++==============+
+| |
++==============+
+@end verbatim
+
+represents a variable number of bytes.
+
+@sp 1
+A lzip file consists of a series of "members" (compressed data sets).
+The members simply appear one after another in the file, with no
+additional information before, between, or after them.
+
+Each member has the following structure:
+
+@verbatim
++--+--+--+--+----+----+=============+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
+| ID string | VN | DS | LZMA stream | CRC32 | Data size | Member size |
++--+--+--+--+----+----+=============+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
+@end verbatim
+
+All multibyte values are stored in little endian order.
+
+@table @samp
+@item ID string (the "magic" bytes)
+A four byte string, identifying the lzip format, with the value "LZIP"
+(0x4C, 0x5A, 0x49, 0x50).
+
+@item VN (version number, 1 byte)
+Just in case something needs to be modified in the future. 1 for now.
+
+@anchor{coded-dict-size}
+@item DS (coded dictionary size, 1 byte)
+The dictionary size is calculated by taking a power of 2 (the base size)
+and subtracting from it a fraction between 0/16 and 7/16 of the base size.@*
+Bits 4-0 contain the base 2 logarithm of the base size (12 to 29).@*
+Bits 7-5 contain the numerator of the fraction (0 to 7) to subtract
+from the base size to obtain the dictionary size.@*
+Example: 0xD3 = 2^19 - 6 * 2^15 = 512 KiB - 6 * 32 KiB = 320 KiB@*
+Valid values for dictionary size range from 4 KiB to 512 MiB.
+
+@item LZMA stream
+The LZMA stream, finished by an end of stream marker. Uses default values
+for encoder properties. @xref{Stream format}, for a complete description.
+
+@item CRC32 (4 bytes)
+Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) of the uncompressed original data.
+
+@item Data size (8 bytes)
+Size of the uncompressed original data.
+
+@item Member size (8 bytes)
+Total size of the member, including header and trailer. This field acts
+as a distributed index, allows the verification of stream integrity, and
+facilitates safe recovery of undamaged members from multimember files.
+
+@end table
+
+
+@node Algorithm
+@chapter Algorithm
+@cindex algorithm
+
+In spite of its name (Lempel-Ziv-Markov chain-Algorithm), LZMA is not a
+concrete algorithm; it is more like "any algorithm using the LZMA coding
+scheme". LZMA compression consists in describing the uncompressed data as a
+succession of coding sequences from the set shown in Section @samp{What is
+coded} (@pxref{what-is-coded}), and then encoding them using a range
+encoder. For example, the option @samp{-0} of clzip uses the scheme in almost
+the simplest way possible; issuing the longest match it can find, or a
+literal byte if it can't find a match. Inversely, a much more elaborated way
+of finding coding sequences of minimum size than the one currently used by
+clzip could be developed, and the resulting sequence could also be coded
+using the LZMA coding scheme.
+
+Clzip currently implements two variants of the LZMA algorithm; fast
+(used by option @samp{-0}) and normal (used by all other compression levels).
+
+The high compression of LZMA comes from combining two basic, well-proven
+compression ideas: sliding dictionaries (LZ77/78) and markov models (the
+thing used by every compression algorithm that uses a range encoder or
+similar order-0 entropy coder as its last stage) with segregation of
+contexts according to what the bits are used for.
+
+Clzip is a two stage compressor. The first stage is a Lempel-Ziv coder,
+which reduces redundancy by translating chunks of data to their
+corresponding distance-length pairs. The second stage is a range encoder
+that uses a different probability model for each type of data;
+distances, lengths, literal bytes, etc.
+
+Here is how it works, step by step:
+
+1) The member header is written to the output stream.
+
+2) The first byte is coded literally, because there are no previous
+bytes to which the match finder can refer to.
+
+3) The main encoder advances to the next byte in the input data and
+calls the match finder.
+
+4) The match finder fills an array with the minimum distances before the
+current byte where a match of a given length can be found.
+
+5) Go back to step 3 until a sequence (formed of pairs, repeated
+distances, and literal bytes) of minimum price has been formed. Where the
+price represents the number of output bits produced.
+
+6) The range encoder encodes the sequence produced by the main encoder
+and sends the bytes produced to the output stream.
+
+7) Go back to step 3 until the input data are finished or until the
+member or volume size limits are reached.
+
+8) The range encoder is flushed.
+
+9) The member trailer is written to the output stream.
+
+10) If there are more data to compress, go back to step 1.
+
+@sp 1
+During compression, clzip reads data in large blocks (one dictionary size at
+a time). Therefore it may block for up to tens of seconds any process
+feeding data to it through a pipe. This is normal. The blocking intervals
+get longer with higher compression levels because dictionary size increases
+(and compression speed decreases) with compression level.
+
+@noindent
+The ideas embodied in clzip are due to (at least) the following people:
+Abraham Lempel and Jacob Ziv (for the LZ algorithm), Andrey Markov (for the
+definition of Markov chains), G.N.N. Martin (for the definition of range
+encoding), Igor Pavlov (for putting all the above together in LZMA), and
+Julian Seward (for bzip2's CLI).
+
+
+@node Stream format
+@chapter Format of the LZMA stream in lzip files
+@cindex format of the LZMA stream
+
+Lzip uses a simplified form of the LZMA stream format chosen to maximize
+safety and interoperability.
+
+The LZMA algorithm has three parameters, called "special LZMA
+properties", to adjust it for some kinds of binary data. These
+parameters are; @samp{literal_context_bits} (with a default value of 3),
+@samp{literal_pos_state_bits} (with a default value of 0), and
+@samp{pos_state_bits} (with a default value of 2). As a general purpose
+compressor, lzip only uses the default values for these parameters. In
+particular @samp{literal_pos_state_bits} has been optimized away and
+does not even appear in the code.
+
+Lzip finishes the LZMA stream with an "End Of Stream" (EOS) marker
+(the distance-length pair 0xFFFFFFFFU, 2), which in conjunction with the
+@samp{member size} field in the member trailer allows the verification of
+stream integrity. The LZMA stream in lzip files always has these two
+features (default properties and EOS marker) and is referred to in this
+document as LZMA-302eos. The EOS marker is the only marker allowed in
+lzip files.
+
+The second stage of LZMA is a range encoder that uses a different
+probability model for each type of symbol; distances, lengths, literal
+bytes, etc. Range encoding conceptually encodes all the symbols of the
+message into one number. Unlike Huffman coding, which assigns to each
+symbol a bit-pattern and concatenates all the bit-patterns together,
+range encoding can compress one symbol to less than one bit. Therefore
+the compressed data produced by a range encoder can't be split in pieces
+that could be described individually.
+
+It seems that the only way of describing the LZMA-302eos stream is
+describing the algorithm that decodes it. And given the many details
+about the range decoder that need to be described accurately, the source
+code of a real decoder seems the only appropriate reference to use.
+
+What follows is a description of the decoding algorithm for LZMA-302eos
+streams using as reference the source code of "lzd", an educational
+decompressor for lzip files which can be downloaded from the lzip
+download directory. The source code of lzd is included in appendix A.
+@xref{Reference source code}.
+
+@sp 1
+@section What is coded
+
+@anchor{what-is-coded}
+The LZMA stream includes literals, matches, and repeated matches (matches
+reusing a recently used distance). There are 7 different coding sequences:
+
+@multitable @columnfractions .35 .14 .51
+@headitem Bit sequence @tab Name @tab Description
+@item 0 + byte @tab literal @tab literal byte
+@item 1 + 0 + len + dis @tab match @tab distance-length pair
+@item 1 + 1 + 0 + 0 @tab shortrep @tab 1 byte match at latest used distance
+@item 1 + 1 + 0 + 1 + len @tab rep0 @tab len bytes match at latest used distance
+@item 1 + 1 + 1 + 0 + len @tab rep1 @tab len bytes match at second
+latest used distance
+@item 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 0 + len @tab rep2 @tab len bytes match at third
+latest used distance
+@item 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + len @tab rep3 @tab len bytes match at fourth
+latest used distance
+@end multitable
+
+@sp 1
+In the following tables, multibit sequences are coded in normal order,
+from most significant bit (MSB) to least significant bit (LSB), except
+where noted otherwise.
+
+Lengths (the @samp{len} in the table above) are coded as follows:
+
+@multitable @columnfractions .5 .5
+@headitem Bit sequence @tab Description
+@item 0 + 3 bits @tab lengths from 2 to 9
+@item 1 + 0 + 3 bits @tab lengths from 10 to 17
+@item 1 + 1 + 8 bits @tab lengths from 18 to 273
+@end multitable
+
+@sp 1
+The coding of distances is a little more complicated, so I'll begin
+explaining a simpler version of the encoding.
+
+Imagine you need to encode a number from 0 to @w{2^32 - 1}, and you want to
+do it in a way that produces shorter codes for the smaller numbers. You may
+first encode the position of the most significant bit that is set to 1,
+which you may find by making a bit scan from the left (from the MSB). A
+position of 0 means that the number is 0 (no bit is set), 1 means the LSB is
+the first bit set (the number is 1), and 32 means the MSB is set (i.e., the
+number is @w{>= 0x80000000}). Then, if the position is @w{>= 2}, you encode
+the remaining @w{position - 1} bits. Let's call these bits "direct_bits"
+because they are coded directly by value instead of indirectly by position.
+
+The inconvenient of this simple method is that it needs 6 bits to encode the
+position, but it just uses 33 of the 64 possible values, wasting almost half
+of the codes.
+
+The intelligent trick of LZMA is that it encodes in what it calls a "slot"
+the position of the most significant bit set, along with the value of the
+next bit, using the same 6 bits that would take to encode the position
+alone. This seems to need 66 slots (twice the number of positions), but for
+positions 0 and 1 there is no next bit, so the number of slots needed is 64
+(0 to 63).
+
+The 6 bits representing this "slot number" are then context-coded. If
+the distance is @w{>= 4}, the remaining bits are encoded as follows.
+@samp{direct_bits} is the amount of remaining bits (from 1 to 30) needed
+to form a complete distance, and is calculated as @w{(slot >> 1) - 1}.
+If a distance needs 6 or more direct_bits, the last 4 bits are encoded
+separately. The last piece (all the direct_bits for distances 4 to 127,
+or the last 4 bits for distances @w{>= 128}) is context-coded in reverse
+order (from LSB to MSB). For distances @w{>= 128}, the
+@w{@samp{direct_bits - 4}} part is encoded with fixed 0.5 probability.
+
+@multitable @columnfractions .5 .5
+@headitem Bit sequence @tab Description
+@item slot @tab distances from 0 to 3
+@item slot + direct_bits @tab distances from 4 to 127
+@item slot + (direct_bits - 4) + 4 bits @tab distances from 128 to
+2^32 - 1
+@end multitable
+
+@sp 1
+@section The coding contexts
+
+These contexts (@samp{Bit_model} in the source), are integers or arrays
+of integers representing the probability of the corresponding bit being 0.
+
+The indices used in these arrays are:
+
+@table @samp
+@item state
+A state machine (@samp{State} in the source) with 12 states (0 to 11),
+coding the latest 2 to 4 types of sequences processed. The initial state
+is 0.
+
+@item pos_state
+Value of the 2 least significant bits of the current position in the
+decoded data.
+
+@item literal_state
+Value of the 3 most significant bits of the latest byte decoded.
+
+@item len_state
+Coded value of the current match length @w{(length - 2)}, with a maximum
+of 3. The resulting value is in the range 0 to 3.
+
+@end table
+
+
+In the following table, @samp{!literal} is any sequence except a literal
+byte. @samp{rep} is any one of @samp{rep0}, @samp{rep1}, @samp{rep2}, or
+@samp{rep3}. The types of previous sequences corresponding to each state
+are:
+
+@multitable {State} {rep or (!literal, shortrep), literal, literal}
+@headitem State @tab Types of previous sequences
+@item 0 @tab literal, literal, literal
+@item 1 @tab match, literal, literal
+@item 2 @tab rep or (!literal, shortrep), literal, literal
+@item 3 @tab literal, shortrep, literal, literal
+@item 4 @tab match, literal
+@item 5 @tab rep or (!literal, shortrep), literal
+@item 6 @tab literal, shortrep, literal
+@item 7 @tab literal, match
+@item 8 @tab literal, rep
+@item 9 @tab literal, shortrep
+@item 10 @tab !literal, match
+@item 11 @tab !literal, (rep or shortrep)
+@end multitable
+
+@sp 1
+The contexts for decoding the type of coding sequence are:
+
+@multitable @columnfractions .2 .35 .45
+@headitem Name @tab Indices @tab Used when
+@item bm_match @tab state, pos_state @tab sequence start
+@item bm_rep @tab state @tab after sequence 1
+@item bm_rep0 @tab state @tab after sequence 11
+@item bm_rep1 @tab state @tab after sequence 111
+@item bm_rep2 @tab state @tab after sequence 1111
+@item bm_len @tab state, pos_state @tab after sequence 110
+@end multitable
+
+@sp 1
+The contexts for decoding distances are:
+
+@multitable @columnfractions .2 .3 .5
+@headitem Name @tab Indices @tab Used when
+@item bm_dis_slot @tab len_state, bit tree @tab distance start
+@item bm_dis @tab reverse bit tree @tab after slots 4 to 13
+@item bm_align @tab reverse bit tree @tab for distances >= 128, after
+fixed probability bits
+@end multitable
+
+@sp 1
+There are two separate sets of contexts for lengths (@samp{Len_model} in
+the source). One for normal matches, the other for repeated matches. The
+contexts in each Len_model are (see @samp{decode_len} in the source):
+
+@multitable @columnfractions .2 .4 .4
+@headitem Name @tab Indices @tab Used when
+@item choice1 @tab none @tab length start
+@item choice2 @tab none @tab after sequence 1
+@item bm_low @tab pos_state, bit tree @tab after sequence 0
+@item bm_mid @tab pos_state, bit tree @tab after sequence 10
+@item bm_high @tab bit tree @tab after sequence 11
+@end multitable
+
+@sp 1
+The context array @samp{bm_literal} is special. In principle it acts as
+a normal bit tree context, the one selected by @samp{literal_state}. But
+if the previous decoded byte was not a literal, two other bit tree
+contexts are used depending on the value of each bit in
+@samp{match_byte} (the byte at the latest used distance), until a bit is
+decoded that is different from its corresponding bit in
+@samp{match_byte}. After the first difference is found, the rest of the
+byte is decoded using the normal bit tree context. (See
+@samp{decode_matched} in the source).
+
+@sp 1
+@section The range decoder
+
+The LZMA stream is consumed one byte at a time by the range decoder.
+(See @samp{normalize} in the source). Every byte consumed produces a
+variable number of decoded bits, depending on how well these bits agree
+with their context. (See @samp{decode_bit} in the source).
+
+The range decoder state consists of two unsigned 32-bit variables;
+@samp{range} (representing the most significant part of the range size
+not yet decoded), and @samp{code} (representing the current point within
+@samp{range}). @samp{range} is initialized to @w{2^32 - 1}, and
+@samp{code} is initialized to 0.
+
+The range encoder produces a first 0 byte that must be ignored by the
+range decoder. This is done by shifting 5 bytes in the initialization of
+@samp{code} instead of 4. (See the @samp{Range_decoder} constructor in
+the source).
+
+@sp 1
+@section Decoding and verifying the LZMA stream
+
+After decoding the member header and obtaining the dictionary size, the
+range decoder is initialized and then the LZMA decoder enters a loop
+(See @samp{decode_member} in the source) where it invokes the range
+decoder with the appropriate contexts to decode the different coding
+sequences (matches, repeated matches, and literal bytes), until the "End
+Of Stream" marker is decoded.
+
+Once the "End Of Stream" marker has been decoded, the decompressor reads and
+decodes the member trailer, and verifies that the three integrity factors
+(CRC, data size, and member size) match those calculated by the LZMA decoder.
+
+
+@node Trailing data
+@chapter Extra data appended to the file
+@cindex trailing data
+
+Sometimes extra data are found appended to a lzip file after the last
+member. Such trailing data may be:
+
+@itemize @bullet
+@item
+Padding added to make the file size a multiple of some block size, for
+example when writing to a tape. It is safe to append any amount of
+padding zero bytes to a lzip file.
+
+@item
+Useful data added by the user; a cryptographically secure hash, a
+description of file contents, etc. It is safe to append any amount of
+text to a lzip file as long as none of the first four bytes of the text
+match the corresponding byte in the string "LZIP", and the text does not
+contain any zero bytes (null characters). Nonzero bytes and zero bytes
+can't be safely mixed in trailing data.
+
+@item
+Garbage added by some not totally successful copy operation.
+
+@item
+Malicious data added to the file in order to make its total size and
+hash value (for a chosen hash) coincide with those of another file.
+
+@item
+In rare cases, trailing data could be the corrupt header of another
+member. In multimember or concatenated files the probability of
+corruption happening in the magic bytes is 5 times smaller than the
+probability of getting a false positive caused by the corruption of the
+integrity information itself. Therefore it can be considered to be below
+the noise level. Additionally, the test used by clzip to discriminate
+trailing data from a corrupt header has a Hamming distance (HD) of 3,
+and the 3 bit flips must happen in different magic bytes for the test to
+fail. In any case, the option @samp{--trailing-error} guarantees that
+any corrupt header will be detected.
+@end itemize
+
+Trailing data are in no way part of the lzip file format, but tools
+reading lzip files are expected to behave as correctly and usefully as
+possible in the presence of trailing data.
+
+Trailing data can be safely ignored in most cases. In some cases, like
+that of user-added data, they are expected to be ignored. In those cases
+where a file containing trailing data must be rejected, the option
+@samp{--trailing-error} can be used. @xref{--trailing-error}.
+
+
+@node Examples
+@chapter A small tutorial with examples
+@cindex examples
+
+WARNING! Even if clzip is bug-free, other causes may result in a corrupt
+compressed file (bugs in the system libraries, memory errors, etc).
+Therefore, if the data you are going to compress are important, give the
+option @samp{--keep} to clzip and don't remove the original file until you
+verify the compressed file with a command like
+@w{@samp{clzip -cd file.lz | cmp file -}}. Most RAM errors happening during
+compression can only be detected by comparing the compressed file with the
+original because the corruption happens before clzip compresses the RAM
+contents, resulting in a valid compressed file containing wrong data.
+
+@sp 1
+@noindent
+Example 1: Extract all the files from archive @samp{foo.tar.lz}.
+
+@example
+ tar -xf foo.tar.lz
+or
+ clzip -cd foo.tar.lz | tar -xf -
+@end example
+
+@sp 1
+@noindent
+Example 2: Replace a regular file with its compressed version @samp{file.lz}
+and show the compression ratio.
+
+@example
+clzip -v file
+@end example
+
+@sp 1
+@noindent
+Example 3: Like example 1 but the created @samp{file.lz} is multimember with
+a member size of @w{1 MiB}. The compression ratio is not shown.
+
+@example
+clzip -b 1MiB file
+@end example
+
+@sp 1
+@noindent
+Example 4: Restore a regular file from its compressed version
+@samp{file.lz}. If the operation is successful, @samp{file.lz} is removed.
+
+@example
+clzip -d file.lz
+@end example
+
+@sp 1
+@noindent
+Example 5: Verify the integrity of the compressed file @samp{file.lz} and
+show status.
+
+@example
+clzip -tv file.lz
+@end example
+
+@sp 1
+@noindent
+Example 6: Compress a whole device in /dev/sdc and send the output to
+@samp{file.lz}.
+
+@example
+ clzip -c /dev/sdc > file.lz
+or
+ clzip /dev/sdc -o file.lz
+@end example
+
+@sp 1
+@anchor{concat-example}
+@noindent
+Example 7: The right way of concatenating the decompressed output of two or
+more compressed files. @xref{Trailing data}.
+
+@example
+Don't do this
+ cat file1.lz file2.lz file3.lz | clzip -d -
+Do this instead
+ clzip -cd file1.lz file2.lz file3.lz
+@end example
+
+@sp 1
+@noindent
+Example 8: Decompress @samp{file.lz} partially until @w{10 KiB} of
+decompressed data are produced.
+
+@example
+clzip -cd file.lz | dd bs=1024 count=10
+@end example
+
+@sp 1
+@noindent
+Example 9: Decompress @samp{file.lz} partially from decompressed byte at
+offset 10000 to decompressed byte at offset 14999 (5000 bytes are produced).
+
+@example
+clzip -cd file.lz | dd bs=1000 skip=10 count=5
+@end example
+
+@sp 1
+@noindent
+Example 10: Create a multivolume compressed tar archive with a volume size
+of @w{1440 KiB}.
+
+@example
+tar -c some_directory | clzip -S 1440KiB -o volume_name -
+@end example
+
+@sp 1
+@noindent
+Example 11: Extract a multivolume compressed tar archive.
+
+@example
+clzip -cd volume_name*.lz | tar -xf -
+@end example
+
+@sp 1
+@noindent
+Example 12: Create a multivolume compressed backup of a large database file
+with a volume size of @w{650 MB}, where each volume is a multimember file
+with a member size of @w{32 MiB}.
+
+@example
+clzip -b 32MiB -S 650MB big_db
+@end example
+
+
+@node Problems
+@chapter Reporting bugs
+@cindex bugs
+@cindex getting help
+
+There are probably bugs in clzip. There are certainly errors and
+omissions in this manual. If you report them, they will get fixed. If
+you don't, no one will ever know about them and they will remain unfixed
+for all eternity, if not longer.
+
+If you find a bug in clzip, please send electronic mail to
+@email{lzip-bug@@nongnu.org}. Include the version number, which you can
+find by running @w{@samp{clzip --version}}.
+
+
+@node Reference source code
+@appendix Reference source code
+@cindex reference source code
+
+@verbatim
+/* Lzd - Educational decompressor for the lzip format
+ Copyright (C) 2013-2021 Antonio Diaz Diaz.
+
+ This program is free software. Redistribution and use in source and
+ binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided
+ that the following conditions are met:
+
+ 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ notice, this list of conditions, and the following disclaimer.
+
+ 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ notice, this list of conditions, and the following disclaimer in the
+ documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+
+ This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
+*/
+/*
+ Exit status: 0 for a normal exit, 1 for environmental problems
+ (file not found, invalid flags, I/O errors, etc), 2 to indicate a
+ corrupt or invalid input file.
+*/
+
+#include <algorithm>
+#include <cerrno>
+#include <cstdio>
+#include <cstdlib>
+#include <cstring>
+#include <stdint.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#if defined(__MSVCRT__) || defined(__OS2__) || defined(__DJGPP__)
+#include <fcntl.h>
+#include <io.h>
+#endif
+
+
+class State
+ {
+ int st;
+
+public:
+ enum { states = 12 };
+ State() : st( 0 ) {}
+ int operator()() const { return st; }
+ bool is_char() const { return st < 7; }
+
+ void set_char()
+ {
+ const int next[states] = { 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 4, 5 };
+ st = next[st];
+ }
+ void set_match() { st = ( st < 7 ) ? 7 : 10; }
+ void set_rep() { st = ( st < 7 ) ? 8 : 11; }
+ void set_short_rep() { st = ( st < 7 ) ? 9 : 11; }
+ };
+
+
+enum {
+ min_dictionary_size = 1 << 12,
+ max_dictionary_size = 1 << 29,
+ literal_context_bits = 3,
+ literal_pos_state_bits = 0, // not used
+ pos_state_bits = 2,
+ pos_states = 1 << pos_state_bits,
+ pos_state_mask = pos_states - 1,
+
+ len_states = 4,
+ dis_slot_bits = 6,
+ start_dis_model = 4,
+ end_dis_model = 14,
+ modeled_distances = 1 << ( end_dis_model / 2 ), // 128
+ dis_align_bits = 4,
+ dis_align_size = 1 << dis_align_bits,
+
+ len_low_bits = 3,
+ len_mid_bits = 3,
+ len_high_bits = 8,
+ len_low_symbols = 1 << len_low_bits,
+ len_mid_symbols = 1 << len_mid_bits,
+ len_high_symbols = 1 << len_high_bits,
+ max_len_symbols = len_low_symbols + len_mid_symbols + len_high_symbols,
+
+ min_match_len = 2, // must be 2
+
+ bit_model_move_bits = 5,
+ bit_model_total_bits = 11,
+ bit_model_total = 1 << bit_model_total_bits };
+
+struct Bit_model
+ {
+ int probability;
+ Bit_model() : probability( bit_model_total / 2 ) {}
+ };
+
+struct Len_model
+ {
+ Bit_model choice1;
+ Bit_model choice2;
+ Bit_model bm_low[pos_states][len_low_symbols];
+ Bit_model bm_mid[pos_states][len_mid_symbols];
+ Bit_model bm_high[len_high_symbols];
+ };
+
+
+class CRC32
+ {
+ uint32_t data[256]; // Table of CRCs of all 8-bit messages.
+
+public:
+ CRC32()
+ {
+ for( unsigned n = 0; n < 256; ++n )
+ {
+ unsigned c = n;
+ for( int k = 0; k < 8; ++k )
+ { if( c & 1 ) c = 0xEDB88320U ^ ( c >> 1 ); else c >>= 1; }
+ data[n] = c;
+ }
+ }
+
+ void update_buf( uint32_t & crc, const uint8_t * const buffer,
+ const int size ) const
+ {
+ for( int i = 0; i < size; ++i )
+ crc = data[(crc^buffer[i])&0xFF] ^ ( crc >> 8 );
+ }
+ };
+
+const CRC32 crc32;
+
+
+typedef uint8_t Lzip_header[6]; // 0-3 magic bytes
+ // 4 version
+ // 5 coded dictionary size
+typedef uint8_t Lzip_trailer[20];
+ // 0-3 CRC32 of the uncompressed data
+ // 4-11 size of the uncompressed data
+ // 12-19 member size including header and trailer
+
+class Range_decoder
+ {
+ unsigned long long member_pos;
+ uint32_t code;
+ uint32_t range;
+
+public:
+ Range_decoder() : member_pos( 6 ), code( 0 ), range( 0xFFFFFFFFU )
+ {
+ for( int i = 0; i < 5; ++i ) code = ( code << 8 ) | get_byte();
+ }
+
+ uint8_t get_byte() { ++member_pos; return std::getc( stdin ); }
+ unsigned long long member_position() const { return member_pos; }
+
+ unsigned decode( const int num_bits )
+ {
+ unsigned symbol = 0;
+ for( int i = num_bits; i > 0; --i )
+ {
+ range >>= 1;
+ symbol <<= 1;
+ if( code >= range ) { code -= range; symbol |= 1; }
+ if( range <= 0x00FFFFFFU ) // normalize
+ { range <<= 8; code = ( code << 8 ) | get_byte(); }
+ }
+ return symbol;
+ }
+
+ unsigned decode_bit( Bit_model & bm )
+ {
+ unsigned symbol;
+ const uint32_t bound = ( range >> bit_model_total_bits ) * bm.probability;
+ if( code < bound )
+ {
+ range = bound;
+ bm.probability +=
+ ( bit_model_total - bm.probability ) >> bit_model_move_bits;
+ symbol = 0;
+ }
+ else
+ {
+ range -= bound;
+ code -= bound;
+ bm.probability -= bm.probability >> bit_model_move_bits;
+ symbol = 1;
+ }
+ if( range <= 0x00FFFFFFU ) // normalize
+ { range <<= 8; code = ( code << 8 ) | get_byte(); }
+ return symbol;
+ }
+
+ unsigned decode_tree( Bit_model bm[], const int num_bits )
+ {
+ unsigned symbol = 1;
+ for( int i = 0; i < num_bits; ++i )
+ symbol = ( symbol << 1 ) | decode_bit( bm[symbol] );
+ return symbol - ( 1 << num_bits );
+ }
+
+ unsigned decode_tree_reversed( Bit_model bm[], const int num_bits )
+ {
+ unsigned symbol = decode_tree( bm, num_bits );
+ unsigned reversed_symbol = 0;
+ for( int i = 0; i < num_bits; ++i )
+ {
+ reversed_symbol = ( reversed_symbol << 1 ) | ( symbol & 1 );
+ symbol >>= 1;
+ }
+ return reversed_symbol;
+ }
+
+ unsigned decode_matched( Bit_model bm[], const unsigned match_byte )
+ {
+ unsigned symbol = 1;
+ for( int i = 7; i >= 0; --i )
+ {
+ const unsigned match_bit = ( match_byte >> i ) & 1;
+ const unsigned bit = decode_bit( bm[symbol+(match_bit<<8)+0x100] );
+ symbol = ( symbol << 1 ) | bit;
+ if( match_bit != bit )
+ {
+ while( symbol < 0x100 )
+ symbol = ( symbol << 1 ) | decode_bit( bm[symbol] );
+ break;
+ }
+ }
+ return symbol & 0xFF;
+ }
+
+ unsigned decode_len( Len_model & lm, const int pos_state )
+ {
+ if( decode_bit( lm.choice1 ) == 0 )
+ return decode_tree( lm.bm_low[pos_state], len_low_bits );
+ if( decode_bit( lm.choice2 ) == 0 )
+ return len_low_symbols +
+ decode_tree( lm.bm_mid[pos_state], len_mid_bits );
+ return len_low_symbols + len_mid_symbols +
+ decode_tree( lm.bm_high, len_high_bits );
+ }
+ };
+
+
+class LZ_decoder
+ {
+ unsigned long long partial_data_pos;
+ Range_decoder rdec;
+ const unsigned dictionary_size;
+ uint8_t * const buffer; // output buffer
+ unsigned pos; // current pos in buffer
+ unsigned stream_pos; // first byte not yet written to stdout
+ uint32_t crc_;
+ bool pos_wrapped;
+
+ void flush_data();
+
+ uint8_t peek( const unsigned distance ) const
+ {
+ if( pos > distance ) return buffer[pos - distance - 1];
+ if( pos_wrapped ) return buffer[dictionary_size + pos - distance - 1];
+ return 0; // prev_byte of first byte
+ }
+
+ void put_byte( const uint8_t b )
+ {
+ buffer[pos] = b;
+ if( ++pos >= dictionary_size ) flush_data();
+ }
+
+public:
+ explicit LZ_decoder( const unsigned dict_size )
+ :
+ partial_data_pos( 0 ),
+ dictionary_size( dict_size ),
+ buffer( new uint8_t[dictionary_size] ),
+ pos( 0 ),
+ stream_pos( 0 ),
+ crc_( 0xFFFFFFFFU ),
+ pos_wrapped( false )
+ {}
+
+ ~LZ_decoder() { delete[] buffer; }
+
+ unsigned crc() const { return crc_ ^ 0xFFFFFFFFU; }
+ unsigned long long data_position() const
+ { return partial_data_pos + pos; }
+ uint8_t get_byte() { return rdec.get_byte(); }
+ unsigned long long member_position() const
+ { return rdec.member_position(); }
+
+ bool decode_member();
+ };
+
+
+void LZ_decoder::flush_data()
+ {
+ if( pos > stream_pos )
+ {
+ const unsigned size = pos - stream_pos;
+ crc32.update_buf( crc_, buffer + stream_pos, size );
+ if( std::fwrite( buffer + stream_pos, 1, size, stdout ) != size )
+ { std::fprintf( stderr, "Write error: %s\n", std::strerror( errno ) );
+ std::exit( 1 ); }
+ if( pos >= dictionary_size )
+ { partial_data_pos += pos; pos = 0; pos_wrapped = true; }
+ stream_pos = pos;
+ }
+ }
+
+
+bool LZ_decoder::decode_member() // Returns false if error
+ {
+ Bit_model bm_literal[1<<literal_context_bits][0x300];
+ Bit_model bm_match[State::states][pos_states];
+ Bit_model bm_rep[State::states];
+ Bit_model bm_rep0[State::states];
+ Bit_model bm_rep1[State::states];
+ Bit_model bm_rep2[State::states];
+ Bit_model bm_len[State::states][pos_states];
+ Bit_model bm_dis_slot[len_states][1<<dis_slot_bits];
+ Bit_model bm_dis[modeled_distances-end_dis_model+1];
+ Bit_model bm_align[dis_align_size];
+ Len_model match_len_model;
+ Len_model rep_len_model;
+ unsigned rep0 = 0; // rep[0-3] latest four distances
+ unsigned rep1 = 0; // used for efficient coding of
+ unsigned rep2 = 0; // repeated distances
+ unsigned rep3 = 0;
+ State state;
+
+ while( !std::feof( stdin ) && !std::ferror( stdin ) )
+ {
+ const int pos_state = data_position() & pos_state_mask;
+ if( rdec.decode_bit( bm_match[state()][pos_state] ) == 0 ) // 1st bit
+ {
+ // literal byte
+ const uint8_t prev_byte = peek( 0 );
+ const int literal_state = prev_byte >> ( 8 - literal_context_bits );
+ Bit_model * const bm = bm_literal[literal_state];
+ if( state.is_char() )
+ put_byte( rdec.decode_tree( bm, 8 ) );
+ else
+ put_byte( rdec.decode_matched( bm, peek( rep0 ) ) );
+ state.set_char();
+ continue;
+ }
+ // match or repeated match
+ int len;
+ if( rdec.decode_bit( bm_rep[state()] ) != 0 ) // 2nd bit
+ {
+ if( rdec.decode_bit( bm_rep0[state()] ) == 0 ) // 3rd bit
+ {
+ if( rdec.decode_bit( bm_len[state()][pos_state] ) == 0 ) // 4th bit
+ { state.set_short_rep(); put_byte( peek( rep0 ) ); continue; }
+ }
+ else
+ {
+ unsigned distance;
+ if( rdec.decode_bit( bm_rep1[state()] ) == 0 ) // 4th bit
+ distance = rep1;
+ else
+ {
+ if( rdec.decode_bit( bm_rep2[state()] ) == 0 ) // 5th bit
+ distance = rep2;
+ else
+ { distance = rep3; rep3 = rep2; }
+ rep2 = rep1;
+ }
+ rep1 = rep0;
+ rep0 = distance;
+ }
+ state.set_rep();
+ len = min_match_len + rdec.decode_len( rep_len_model, pos_state );
+ }
+ else // match
+ {
+ rep3 = rep2; rep2 = rep1; rep1 = rep0;
+ len = min_match_len + rdec.decode_len( match_len_model, pos_state );
+ const int len_state = std::min( len - min_match_len, len_states - 1 );
+ rep0 = rdec.decode_tree( bm_dis_slot[len_state], dis_slot_bits );
+ if( rep0 >= start_dis_model )
+ {
+ const unsigned dis_slot = rep0;
+ const int direct_bits = ( dis_slot >> 1 ) - 1;
+ rep0 = ( 2 | ( dis_slot & 1 ) ) << direct_bits;
+ if( dis_slot < end_dis_model )
+ rep0 += rdec.decode_tree_reversed( bm_dis + ( rep0 - dis_slot ),
+ direct_bits );
+ else
+ {
+ rep0 +=
+ rdec.decode( direct_bits - dis_align_bits ) << dis_align_bits;
+ rep0 += rdec.decode_tree_reversed( bm_align, dis_align_bits );
+ if( rep0 == 0xFFFFFFFFU ) // marker found
+ {
+ flush_data();
+ return ( len == min_match_len ); // End Of Stream marker
+ }
+ }
+ }
+ state.set_match();
+ if( rep0 >= dictionary_size || ( rep0 >= pos && !pos_wrapped ) )
+ { flush_data(); return false; }
+ }
+ for( int i = 0; i < len; ++i ) put_byte( peek( rep0 ) );
+ }
+ flush_data();
+ return false;
+ }
+
+
+int main( const int argc, const char * const argv[] )
+ {
+ if( argc > 2 || ( argc == 2 && std::strcmp( argv[1], "-d" ) != 0 ) )
+ {
+ std::printf(
+ "Lzd %s - Educational decompressor for the lzip format.\n"
+ "Study the source to learn how a lzip decompressor works.\n"
+ "See the lzip manual for an explanation of the code.\n"
+ "\nUsage: %s [-d] < file.lz > file\n"
+ "Lzd decompresses from standard input to standard output.\n"
+ "\nCopyright (C) 2021 Antonio Diaz Diaz.\n"
+ "License 2-clause BSD.\n"
+ "This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.\n"
+ "There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.\n"
+ "Report bugs to lzip-bug@nongnu.org\n"
+ "Lzd home page: http://www.nongnu.org/lzip/lzd.html\n",
+ PROGVERSION, argv[0] );
+ return 0;
+ }
+
+#if defined(__MSVCRT__) || defined(__OS2__) || defined(__DJGPP__)
+ setmode( STDIN_FILENO, O_BINARY );
+ setmode( STDOUT_FILENO, O_BINARY );
+#endif
+
+ for( bool first_member = true; ; first_member = false )
+ {
+ Lzip_header header; // verify header
+ for( int i = 0; i < 6; ++i ) header[i] = std::getc( stdin );
+ if( std::feof( stdin ) || std::memcmp( header, "LZIP\x01", 5 ) != 0 )
+ {
+ if( first_member )
+ { std::fputs( "Bad magic number (file not in lzip format).\n",
+ stderr ); return 2; }
+ break; // ignore trailing data
+ }
+ unsigned dict_size = 1 << ( header[5] & 0x1F );
+ dict_size -= ( dict_size / 16 ) * ( ( header[5] >> 5 ) & 7 );
+ if( dict_size < min_dictionary_size || dict_size > max_dictionary_size )
+ { std::fputs( "Invalid dictionary size in member header.\n", stderr );
+ return 2; }
+
+ LZ_decoder decoder( dict_size ); // decode LZMA stream
+ if( !decoder.decode_member() )
+ { std::fputs( "Data error\n", stderr ); return 2; }
+
+ Lzip_trailer trailer; // verify trailer
+ for( int i = 0; i < 20; ++i ) trailer[i] = decoder.get_byte();
+ int retval = 0;
+ unsigned crc = 0;
+ for( int i = 3; i >= 0; --i ) crc = ( crc << 8 ) + trailer[i];
+ if( crc != decoder.crc() )
+ { std::fputs( "CRC mismatch\n", stderr ); retval = 2; }
+
+ unsigned long long data_size = 0;
+ for( int i = 11; i >= 4; --i )
+ data_size = ( data_size << 8 ) + trailer[i];
+ if( data_size != decoder.data_position() )
+ { std::fputs( "Data size mismatch\n", stderr ); retval = 2; }
+
+ unsigned long long member_size = 0;
+ for( int i = 19; i >= 12; --i )
+ member_size = ( member_size << 8 ) + trailer[i];
+ if( member_size != decoder.member_position() )
+ { std::fputs( "Member size mismatch\n", stderr ); retval = 2; }
+ if( retval ) return retval;
+ }
+
+ if( std::fclose( stdout ) != 0 )
+ { std::fprintf( stderr, "Error closing stdout: %s\n",
+ std::strerror( errno ) ); return 1; }
+ return 0;
+ }
+@end verbatim
+
+
+@node Concept index
+@unnumbered Concept index
+
+@printindex cp
+
+@bye
diff --git a/encoder.c b/encoder.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..ceb8a97
--- /dev/null
+++ b/encoder.c
@@ -0,0 +1,615 @@
+/* Clzip - LZMA lossless data compressor
+ Copyright (C) 2010-2021 Antonio Diaz Diaz.
+
+ This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ the Free Software Foundation, either version 2 of the License, or
+ (at your option) any later version.
+
+ This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
+ GNU General Public License for more details.
+
+ You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+*/
+
+#define _FILE_OFFSET_BITS 64
+
+#include <errno.h>
+#include <stdbool.h>
+#include <stdint.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <string.h>
+
+#include "lzip.h"
+#include "encoder_base.h"
+#include "encoder.h"
+
+
+CRC32 crc32;
+
+
+int LZe_get_match_pairs( struct LZ_encoder * const e, struct Pair * pairs )
+ {
+ int32_t * ptr0 = e->eb.mb.pos_array + ( e->eb.mb.cyclic_pos << 1 );
+ int32_t * ptr1 = ptr0 + 1;
+ int32_t * newptr;
+ int len = 0, len0 = 0, len1 = 0;
+ int maxlen = 3; /* only used if pairs != 0 */
+ int num_pairs = 0;
+ const int pos1 = e->eb.mb.pos + 1;
+ const int min_pos = ( e->eb.mb.pos > e->eb.mb.dictionary_size ) ?
+ e->eb.mb.pos - e->eb.mb.dictionary_size : 0;
+ const uint8_t * const data = Mb_ptr_to_current_pos( &e->eb.mb );
+ int count, key2, key3, key4, newpos1;
+ unsigned tmp;
+ int len_limit = e->match_len_limit;
+
+ if( len_limit > Mb_available_bytes( &e->eb.mb ) )
+ {
+ len_limit = Mb_available_bytes( &e->eb.mb );
+ if( len_limit < 4 ) return 0;
+ }
+
+ tmp = crc32[data[0]] ^ data[1];
+ key2 = tmp & ( num_prev_positions2 - 1 );
+ tmp ^= (unsigned)data[2] << 8;
+ key3 = num_prev_positions2 + ( tmp & ( num_prev_positions3 - 1 ) );
+ key4 = num_prev_positions2 + num_prev_positions3 +
+ ( ( tmp ^ ( crc32[data[3]] << 5 ) ) & e->eb.mb.key4_mask );
+
+ if( pairs )
+ {
+ const int np2 = e->eb.mb.prev_positions[key2];
+ const int np3 = e->eb.mb.prev_positions[key3];
+ if( np2 > min_pos && e->eb.mb.buffer[np2-1] == data[0] )
+ {
+ pairs[0].dis = e->eb.mb.pos - np2;
+ pairs[0].len = maxlen = 2;
+ num_pairs = 1;
+ }
+ if( np2 != np3 && np3 > min_pos && e->eb.mb.buffer[np3-1] == data[0] )
+ {
+ maxlen = 3;
+ pairs[num_pairs++].dis = e->eb.mb.pos - np3;
+ }
+ if( num_pairs > 0 )
+ {
+ const int delta = pairs[num_pairs-1].dis + 1;
+ while( maxlen < len_limit && data[maxlen-delta] == data[maxlen] )
+ ++maxlen;
+ pairs[num_pairs-1].len = maxlen;
+ if( maxlen < 3 ) maxlen = 3;
+ if( maxlen >= len_limit ) pairs = 0; /* done. now just skip */
+ }
+ }
+
+ e->eb.mb.prev_positions[key2] = pos1;
+ e->eb.mb.prev_positions[key3] = pos1;
+ newpos1 = e->eb.mb.prev_positions[key4];
+ e->eb.mb.prev_positions[key4] = pos1;
+
+ for( count = e->cycles; ; )
+ {
+ int delta;
+ if( newpos1 <= min_pos || --count < 0 ) { *ptr0 = *ptr1 = 0; break; }
+
+ delta = pos1 - newpos1;
+ newptr = e->eb.mb.pos_array +
+ ( ( e->eb.mb.cyclic_pos - delta +
+ ( (e->eb.mb.cyclic_pos >= delta) ? 0 : e->eb.mb.dictionary_size + 1 ) ) << 1 );
+ if( data[len-delta] == data[len] )
+ {
+ while( ++len < len_limit && data[len-delta] == data[len] ) {}
+ if( pairs && maxlen < len )
+ {
+ pairs[num_pairs].dis = delta - 1;
+ pairs[num_pairs].len = maxlen = len;
+ ++num_pairs;
+ }
+ if( len >= len_limit )
+ {
+ *ptr0 = newptr[0];
+ *ptr1 = newptr[1];
+ break;
+ }
+ }
+ if( data[len-delta] < data[len] )
+ {
+ *ptr0 = newpos1;
+ ptr0 = newptr + 1;
+ newpos1 = *ptr0;
+ len0 = len; if( len1 < len ) len = len1;
+ }
+ else
+ {
+ *ptr1 = newpos1;
+ ptr1 = newptr;
+ newpos1 = *ptr1;
+ len1 = len; if( len0 < len ) len = len0;
+ }
+ }
+ return num_pairs;
+ }
+
+
+static void LZe_update_distance_prices( struct LZ_encoder * const e )
+ {
+ int dis, len_state;
+ for( dis = start_dis_model; dis < modeled_distances; ++dis )
+ {
+ const int dis_slot = dis_slots[dis];
+ const int direct_bits = ( dis_slot >> 1 ) - 1;
+ const int base = ( 2 | ( dis_slot & 1 ) ) << direct_bits;
+ const int price = price_symbol_reversed( e->eb.bm_dis + ( base - dis_slot ),
+ dis - base, direct_bits );
+ for( len_state = 0; len_state < len_states; ++len_state )
+ e->dis_prices[len_state][dis] = price;
+ }
+
+ for( len_state = 0; len_state < len_states; ++len_state )
+ {
+ int * const dsp = e->dis_slot_prices[len_state];
+ int * const dp = e->dis_prices[len_state];
+ const Bit_model * const bmds = e->eb.bm_dis_slot[len_state];
+ int slot = 0;
+ for( ; slot < end_dis_model; ++slot )
+ dsp[slot] = price_symbol6( bmds, slot );
+ for( ; slot < e->num_dis_slots; ++slot )
+ dsp[slot] = price_symbol6( bmds, slot ) +
+ (((( slot >> 1 ) - 1 ) - dis_align_bits ) << price_shift_bits );
+
+ for( dis = 0; dis < start_dis_model; ++dis )
+ dp[dis] = dsp[dis];
+ for( ; dis < modeled_distances; ++dis )
+ dp[dis] += dsp[dis_slots[dis]];
+ }
+ }
+
+
+/* Returns the number of bytes advanced (ahead).
+ trials[0]..trials[ahead-1] contain the steps to encode.
+ ( trials[0].dis4 == -1 ) means literal.
+ A match/rep longer or equal than match_len_limit finishes the sequence.
+*/
+static int LZe_sequence_optimizer( struct LZ_encoder * const e,
+ const int reps[num_rep_distances],
+ const State state )
+ {
+ int main_len, num_pairs, i, rep, num_trials, len;
+ int rep_index = 0, cur = 0;
+ int replens[num_rep_distances];
+
+ if( e->pending_num_pairs > 0 ) /* from previous call */
+ {
+ num_pairs = e->pending_num_pairs;
+ e->pending_num_pairs = 0;
+ }
+ else
+ num_pairs = LZe_read_match_distances( e );
+ main_len = ( num_pairs > 0 ) ? e->pairs[num_pairs-1].len : 0;
+
+ for( i = 0; i < num_rep_distances; ++i )
+ {
+ replens[i] = Mb_true_match_len( &e->eb.mb, 0, reps[i] + 1 );
+ if( replens[i] > replens[rep_index] ) rep_index = i;
+ }
+ if( replens[rep_index] >= e->match_len_limit )
+ {
+ e->trials[0].price = replens[rep_index];
+ e->trials[0].dis4 = rep_index;
+ LZe_move_and_update( e, replens[rep_index] );
+ return replens[rep_index];
+ }
+
+ if( main_len >= e->match_len_limit )
+ {
+ e->trials[0].price = main_len;
+ e->trials[0].dis4 = e->pairs[num_pairs-1].dis + num_rep_distances;
+ LZe_move_and_update( e, main_len );
+ return main_len;
+ }
+
+ {
+ const int pos_state = Mb_data_position( &e->eb.mb ) & pos_state_mask;
+ const int match_price = price1( e->eb.bm_match[state][pos_state] );
+ const int rep_match_price = match_price + price1( e->eb.bm_rep[state] );
+ const uint8_t prev_byte = Mb_peek( &e->eb.mb, 1 );
+ const uint8_t cur_byte = Mb_peek( &e->eb.mb, 0 );
+ const uint8_t match_byte = Mb_peek( &e->eb.mb, reps[0] + 1 );
+
+ e->trials[1].price = price0( e->eb.bm_match[state][pos_state] );
+ if( St_is_char( state ) )
+ e->trials[1].price += LZeb_price_literal( &e->eb, prev_byte, cur_byte );
+ else
+ e->trials[1].price += LZeb_price_matched( &e->eb, prev_byte, cur_byte, match_byte );
+ e->trials[1].dis4 = -1; /* literal */
+
+ if( match_byte == cur_byte )
+ Tr_update( &e->trials[1], rep_match_price +
+ LZeb_price_shortrep( &e->eb, state, pos_state ), 0, 0 );
+
+ num_trials = max( main_len, replens[rep_index] );
+
+ if( num_trials < min_match_len )
+ {
+ e->trials[0].price = 1;
+ e->trials[0].dis4 = e->trials[1].dis4;
+ Mb_move_pos( &e->eb.mb );
+ return 1;
+ }
+
+ e->trials[0].state = state;
+ for( i = 0; i < num_rep_distances; ++i )
+ e->trials[0].reps[i] = reps[i];
+
+ for( len = min_match_len; len <= num_trials; ++len )
+ e->trials[len].price = infinite_price;
+
+ for( rep = 0; rep < num_rep_distances; ++rep )
+ {
+ int price;
+ if( replens[rep] < min_match_len ) continue;
+ price = rep_match_price + LZeb_price_rep( &e->eb, rep, state, pos_state );
+ for( len = min_match_len; len <= replens[rep]; ++len )
+ Tr_update( &e->trials[len], price +
+ Lp_price( &e->rep_len_prices, len, pos_state ), rep, 0 );
+ }
+
+ if( main_len > replens[0] )
+ {
+ const int normal_match_price = match_price + price0( e->eb.bm_rep[state] );
+ int i = 0, len = max( replens[0] + 1, min_match_len );
+ while( len > e->pairs[i].len ) ++i;
+ while( true )
+ {
+ const int dis = e->pairs[i].dis;
+ Tr_update( &e->trials[len], normal_match_price +
+ LZe_price_pair( e, dis, len, pos_state ),
+ dis + num_rep_distances, 0 );
+ if( ++len > e->pairs[i].len && ++i >= num_pairs ) break;
+ }
+ }
+ }
+
+ while( true ) /* price optimization loop */
+ {
+ struct Trial *cur_trial, *next_trial;
+ int newlen, pos_state, triable_bytes, len_limit;
+ int start_len = min_match_len;
+ int next_price, match_price, rep_match_price;
+ State cur_state;
+ uint8_t prev_byte, cur_byte, match_byte;
+
+ Mb_move_pos( &e->eb.mb );
+ if( ++cur >= num_trials ) /* no more initialized trials */
+ {
+ LZe_backward( e, cur );
+ return cur;
+ }
+
+ num_pairs = LZe_read_match_distances( e );
+ newlen = ( num_pairs > 0 ) ? e->pairs[num_pairs-1].len : 0;
+ if( newlen >= e->match_len_limit )
+ {
+ e->pending_num_pairs = num_pairs;
+ LZe_backward( e, cur );
+ return cur;
+ }
+
+ /* give final values to current trial */
+ cur_trial = &e->trials[cur];
+ {
+ const int dis4 = cur_trial->dis4;
+ int prev_index = cur_trial->prev_index;
+ const int prev_index2 = cur_trial->prev_index2;
+
+ if( prev_index2 == single_step_trial )
+ {
+ cur_state = e->trials[prev_index].state;
+ if( prev_index + 1 == cur ) /* len == 1 */
+ {
+ if( dis4 == 0 ) cur_state = St_set_short_rep( cur_state );
+ else cur_state = St_set_char( cur_state ); /* literal */
+ }
+ else if( dis4 < num_rep_distances ) cur_state = St_set_rep( cur_state );
+ else cur_state = St_set_match( cur_state );
+ }
+ else
+ {
+ if( prev_index2 == dual_step_trial ) /* dis4 == 0 (rep0) */
+ --prev_index;
+ else /* prev_index2 >= 0 */
+ prev_index = prev_index2;
+ cur_state = St_set_char_rep();
+ }
+ cur_trial->state = cur_state;
+ for( i = 0; i < num_rep_distances; ++i )
+ cur_trial->reps[i] = e->trials[prev_index].reps[i];
+ mtf_reps( dis4, cur_trial->reps ); /* literal is ignored */
+ }
+
+ pos_state = Mb_data_position( &e->eb.mb ) & pos_state_mask;
+ prev_byte = Mb_peek( &e->eb.mb, 1 );
+ cur_byte = Mb_peek( &e->eb.mb, 0 );
+ match_byte = Mb_peek( &e->eb.mb, cur_trial->reps[0] + 1 );
+
+ next_price = cur_trial->price +
+ price0( e->eb.bm_match[cur_state][pos_state] );
+ if( St_is_char( cur_state ) )
+ next_price += LZeb_price_literal( &e->eb, prev_byte, cur_byte );
+ else
+ next_price += LZeb_price_matched( &e->eb, prev_byte, cur_byte, match_byte );
+
+ /* try last updates to next trial */
+ next_trial = &e->trials[cur+1];
+
+ Tr_update( next_trial, next_price, -1, cur ); /* literal */
+
+ match_price = cur_trial->price + price1( e->eb.bm_match[cur_state][pos_state] );
+ rep_match_price = match_price + price1( e->eb.bm_rep[cur_state] );
+
+ if( match_byte == cur_byte && next_trial->dis4 != 0 &&
+ next_trial->prev_index2 == single_step_trial )
+ {
+ const int price = rep_match_price +
+ LZeb_price_shortrep( &e->eb, cur_state, pos_state );
+ if( price <= next_trial->price )
+ {
+ next_trial->price = price;
+ next_trial->dis4 = 0; /* rep0 */
+ next_trial->prev_index = cur;
+ }
+ }
+
+ triable_bytes =
+ min( Mb_available_bytes( &e->eb.mb ), max_num_trials - 1 - cur );
+ if( triable_bytes < min_match_len ) continue;
+
+ len_limit = min( e->match_len_limit, triable_bytes );
+
+ /* try literal + rep0 */
+ if( match_byte != cur_byte && next_trial->prev_index != cur )
+ {
+ const uint8_t * const data = Mb_ptr_to_current_pos( &e->eb.mb );
+ const int dis = cur_trial->reps[0] + 1;
+ const int limit = min( e->match_len_limit + 1, triable_bytes );
+ int len = 1;
+ while( len < limit && data[len-dis] == data[len] ) ++len;
+ if( --len >= min_match_len )
+ {
+ const int pos_state2 = ( pos_state + 1 ) & pos_state_mask;
+ const State state2 = St_set_char( cur_state );
+ const int price = next_price +
+ price1( e->eb.bm_match[state2][pos_state2] ) +
+ price1( e->eb.bm_rep[state2] ) +
+ LZe_price_rep0_len( e, len, state2, pos_state2 );
+ while( num_trials < cur + 1 + len )
+ e->trials[++num_trials].price = infinite_price;
+ Tr_update2( &e->trials[cur+1+len], price, cur + 1 );
+ }
+ }
+
+ /* try rep distances */
+ for( rep = 0; rep < num_rep_distances; ++rep )
+ {
+ const uint8_t * const data = Mb_ptr_to_current_pos( &e->eb.mb );
+ const int dis = cur_trial->reps[rep] + 1;
+ int price;
+
+ if( data[0-dis] != data[0] || data[1-dis] != data[1] ) continue;
+ for( len = min_match_len; len < len_limit; ++len )
+ if( data[len-dis] != data[len] ) break;
+ while( num_trials < cur + len )
+ e->trials[++num_trials].price = infinite_price;
+ price = rep_match_price + LZeb_price_rep( &e->eb, rep, cur_state, pos_state );
+ for( i = min_match_len; i <= len; ++i )
+ Tr_update( &e->trials[cur+i], price +
+ Lp_price( &e->rep_len_prices, i, pos_state ), rep, cur );
+
+ if( rep == 0 ) start_len = len + 1; /* discard shorter matches */
+
+ /* try rep + literal + rep0 */
+ {
+ int len2 = len + 1;
+ const int limit = min( e->match_len_limit + len2, triable_bytes );
+ int pos_state2;
+ State state2;
+ while( len2 < limit && data[len2-dis] == data[len2] ) ++len2;
+ len2 -= len + 1;
+ if( len2 < min_match_len ) continue;
+
+ pos_state2 = ( pos_state + len ) & pos_state_mask;
+ state2 = St_set_rep( cur_state );
+ price += Lp_price( &e->rep_len_prices, len, pos_state ) +
+ price0( e->eb.bm_match[state2][pos_state2] ) +
+ LZeb_price_matched( &e->eb, data[len-1], data[len], data[len-dis] );
+ pos_state2 = ( pos_state2 + 1 ) & pos_state_mask;
+ state2 = St_set_char( state2 );
+ price += price1( e->eb.bm_match[state2][pos_state2] ) +
+ price1( e->eb.bm_rep[state2] ) +
+ LZe_price_rep0_len( e, len2, state2, pos_state2 );
+ while( num_trials < cur + len + 1 + len2 )
+ e->trials[++num_trials].price = infinite_price;
+ Tr_update3( &e->trials[cur+len+1+len2], price, rep, cur + len + 1, cur );
+ }
+ }
+
+ /* try matches */
+ if( newlen >= start_len && newlen <= len_limit )
+ {
+ int dis;
+ const int normal_match_price = match_price +
+ price0( e->eb.bm_rep[cur_state] );
+
+ while( num_trials < cur + newlen )
+ e->trials[++num_trials].price = infinite_price;
+
+ i = 0;
+ while( e->pairs[i].len < start_len ) ++i;
+ dis = e->pairs[i].dis;
+ for( len = start_len; ; ++len )
+ {
+ int price = normal_match_price + LZe_price_pair( e, dis, len, pos_state );
+ Tr_update( &e->trials[cur+len], price, dis + num_rep_distances, cur );
+
+ /* try match + literal + rep0 */
+ if( len == e->pairs[i].len )
+ {
+ const uint8_t * const data = Mb_ptr_to_current_pos( &e->eb.mb );
+ const int dis2 = dis + 1;
+ int len2 = len + 1;
+ const int limit = min( e->match_len_limit + len2, triable_bytes );
+ while( len2 < limit && data[len2-dis2] == data[len2] ) ++len2;
+ len2 -= len + 1;
+ if( len2 >= min_match_len )
+ {
+ int pos_state2 = ( pos_state + len ) & pos_state_mask;
+ State state2 = St_set_match( cur_state );
+ price += price0( e->eb.bm_match[state2][pos_state2] ) +
+ LZeb_price_matched( &e->eb, data[len-1], data[len], data[len-dis2] );
+ pos_state2 = ( pos_state2 + 1 ) & pos_state_mask;
+ state2 = St_set_char( state2 );
+ price += price1( e->eb.bm_match[state2][pos_state2] ) +
+ price1( e->eb.bm_rep[state2] ) +
+ LZe_price_rep0_len( e, len2, state2, pos_state2 );
+
+ while( num_trials < cur + len + 1 + len2 )
+ e->trials[++num_trials].price = infinite_price;
+ Tr_update3( &e->trials[cur+len+1+len2], price,
+ dis + num_rep_distances, cur + len + 1, cur );
+ }
+ if( ++i >= num_pairs ) break;
+ dis = e->pairs[i].dis;
+ }
+ }
+ }
+ }
+ }
+
+
+bool LZe_encode_member( struct LZ_encoder * const e,
+ const unsigned long long member_size )
+ {
+ const unsigned long long member_size_limit =
+ member_size - Lt_size - max_marker_size;
+ const bool best = ( e->match_len_limit > 12 );
+ const int dis_price_count = best ? 1 : 512;
+ const int align_price_count = best ? 1 : dis_align_size;
+ const int price_count = ( e->match_len_limit > 36 ) ? 1013 : 4093;
+ int price_counter = 0; /* counters may decrement below 0 */
+ int dis_price_counter = 0;
+ int align_price_counter = 0;
+ int ahead, i;
+ int reps[num_rep_distances];
+ State state = 0;
+ for( i = 0; i < num_rep_distances; ++i ) reps[i] = 0;
+
+ if( Mb_data_position( &e->eb.mb ) != 0 ||
+ Re_member_position( &e->eb.renc ) != Lh_size )
+ return false; /* can be called only once */
+
+ if( !Mb_data_finished( &e->eb.mb ) ) /* encode first byte */
+ {
+ const uint8_t prev_byte = 0;
+ const uint8_t cur_byte = Mb_peek( &e->eb.mb, 0 );
+ Re_encode_bit( &e->eb.renc, &e->eb.bm_match[state][0], 0 );
+ LZeb_encode_literal( &e->eb, prev_byte, cur_byte );
+ CRC32_update_byte( &e->eb.crc, cur_byte );
+ LZe_get_match_pairs( e, 0 );
+ Mb_move_pos( &e->eb.mb );
+ }
+
+ while( !Mb_data_finished( &e->eb.mb ) )
+ {
+ if( price_counter <= 0 && e->pending_num_pairs == 0 )
+ {
+ price_counter = price_count; /* recalculate prices every these bytes */
+ if( dis_price_counter <= 0 )
+ { dis_price_counter = dis_price_count; LZe_update_distance_prices( e ); }
+ if( align_price_counter <= 0 )
+ {
+ align_price_counter = align_price_count;
+ for( i = 0; i < dis_align_size; ++i )
+ e->align_prices[i] = price_symbol_reversed( e->eb.bm_align, i, dis_align_bits );
+ }
+ Lp_update_prices( &e->match_len_prices );
+ Lp_update_prices( &e->rep_len_prices );
+ }
+
+ ahead = LZe_sequence_optimizer( e, reps, state );
+ price_counter -= ahead;
+
+ for( i = 0; ahead > 0; )
+ {
+ const int pos_state =
+ ( Mb_data_position( &e->eb.mb ) - ahead ) & pos_state_mask;
+ const int len = e->trials[i].price;
+ int dis = e->trials[i].dis4;
+
+ bool bit = ( dis < 0 );
+ Re_encode_bit( &e->eb.renc, &e->eb.bm_match[state][pos_state], !bit );
+ if( bit ) /* literal byte */
+ {
+ const uint8_t prev_byte = Mb_peek( &e->eb.mb, ahead + 1 );
+ const uint8_t cur_byte = Mb_peek( &e->eb.mb, ahead );
+ CRC32_update_byte( &e->eb.crc, cur_byte );
+ if( St_is_char( state ) )
+ LZeb_encode_literal( &e->eb, prev_byte, cur_byte );
+ else
+ {
+ const uint8_t match_byte = Mb_peek( &e->eb.mb, ahead + reps[0] + 1 );
+ LZeb_encode_matched( &e->eb, prev_byte, cur_byte, match_byte );
+ }
+ state = St_set_char( state );
+ }
+ else /* match or repeated match */
+ {
+ CRC32_update_buf( &e->eb.crc, Mb_ptr_to_current_pos( &e->eb.mb ) - ahead, len );
+ mtf_reps( dis, reps );
+ bit = ( dis < num_rep_distances );
+ Re_encode_bit( &e->eb.renc, &e->eb.bm_rep[state], bit );
+ if( bit ) /* repeated match */
+ {
+ bit = ( dis == 0 );
+ Re_encode_bit( &e->eb.renc, &e->eb.bm_rep0[state], !bit );
+ if( bit )
+ Re_encode_bit( &e->eb.renc, &e->eb.bm_len[state][pos_state], len > 1 );
+ else
+ {
+ Re_encode_bit( &e->eb.renc, &e->eb.bm_rep1[state], dis > 1 );
+ if( dis > 1 )
+ Re_encode_bit( &e->eb.renc, &e->eb.bm_rep2[state], dis > 2 );
+ }
+ if( len == 1 ) state = St_set_short_rep( state );
+ else
+ {
+ Re_encode_len( &e->eb.renc, &e->eb.rep_len_model, len, pos_state );
+ Lp_decrement_counter( &e->rep_len_prices, pos_state );
+ state = St_set_rep( state );
+ }
+ }
+ else /* match */
+ {
+ dis -= num_rep_distances;
+ LZeb_encode_pair( &e->eb, dis, len, pos_state );
+ if( dis >= modeled_distances ) --align_price_counter;
+ --dis_price_counter;
+ Lp_decrement_counter( &e->match_len_prices, pos_state );
+ state = St_set_match( state );
+ }
+ }
+ ahead -= len; i += len;
+ if( Re_member_position( &e->eb.renc ) >= member_size_limit )
+ {
+ if( !Mb_dec_pos( &e->eb.mb, ahead ) ) return false;
+ LZeb_full_flush( &e->eb, state );
+ return true;
+ }
+ }
+ }
+ LZeb_full_flush( &e->eb, state );
+ return true;
+ }
diff --git a/encoder.h b/encoder.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..3d63d6a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/encoder.h
@@ -0,0 +1,313 @@
+/* Clzip - LZMA lossless data compressor
+ Copyright (C) 2010-2021 Antonio Diaz Diaz.
+
+ This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ the Free Software Foundation, either version 2 of the License, or
+ (at your option) any later version.
+
+ This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
+ GNU General Public License for more details.
+
+ You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+*/
+
+struct Len_prices
+ {
+ const struct Len_model * lm;
+ int len_symbols;
+ int count;
+ int prices[pos_states][max_len_symbols];
+ int counters[pos_states]; /* may decrement below 0 */
+ };
+
+static inline void Lp_update_low_mid_prices( struct Len_prices * const lp,
+ const int pos_state )
+ {
+ int * const pps = lp->prices[pos_state];
+ int tmp = price0( lp->lm->choice1 );
+ int len = 0;
+ for( ; len < len_low_symbols && len < lp->len_symbols; ++len )
+ pps[len] = tmp + price_symbol3( lp->lm->bm_low[pos_state], len );
+ if( len >= lp->len_symbols ) return;
+ tmp = price1( lp->lm->choice1 ) + price0( lp->lm->choice2 );
+ for( ; len < len_low_symbols + len_mid_symbols && len < lp->len_symbols; ++len )
+ pps[len] = tmp +
+ price_symbol3( lp->lm->bm_mid[pos_state], len - len_low_symbols );
+ }
+
+static inline void Lp_update_high_prices( struct Len_prices * const lp )
+ {
+ const int tmp = price1( lp->lm->choice1 ) + price1( lp->lm->choice2 );
+ int len;
+ for( len = len_low_symbols + len_mid_symbols; len < lp->len_symbols; ++len )
+ /* using 4 slots per value makes "Lp_price" faster */
+ lp->prices[3][len] = lp->prices[2][len] =
+ lp->prices[1][len] = lp->prices[0][len] = tmp +
+ price_symbol8( lp->lm->bm_high, len - len_low_symbols - len_mid_symbols );
+ }
+
+static inline void Lp_reset( struct Len_prices * const lp )
+ { int i; for( i = 0; i < pos_states; ++i ) lp->counters[i] = 0; }
+
+static inline void Lp_init( struct Len_prices * const lp,
+ const struct Len_model * const lm,
+ const int match_len_limit )
+ {
+ lp->lm = lm;
+ lp->len_symbols = match_len_limit + 1 - min_match_len;
+ lp->count = ( match_len_limit > 12 ) ? 1 : lp->len_symbols;
+ Lp_reset( lp );
+ }
+
+static inline void Lp_decrement_counter( struct Len_prices * const lp,
+ const int pos_state )
+ { --lp->counters[pos_state]; }
+
+static inline void Lp_update_prices( struct Len_prices * const lp )
+ {
+ int pos_state;
+ bool high_pending = false;
+ for( pos_state = 0; pos_state < pos_states; ++pos_state )
+ if( lp->counters[pos_state] <= 0 )
+ { lp->counters[pos_state] = lp->count;
+ Lp_update_low_mid_prices( lp, pos_state ); high_pending = true; }
+ if( high_pending && lp->len_symbols > len_low_symbols + len_mid_symbols )
+ Lp_update_high_prices( lp );
+ }
+
+static inline int Lp_price( const struct Len_prices * const lp,
+ const int len, const int pos_state )
+ { return lp->prices[pos_state][len - min_match_len]; }
+
+
+struct Pair /* distance-length pair */
+ {
+ int dis;
+ int len;
+ };
+
+enum { infinite_price = 0x0FFFFFFF,
+ max_num_trials = 1 << 13,
+ single_step_trial = -2,
+ dual_step_trial = -1 };
+
+struct Trial
+ {
+ State state;
+ int price; /* dual use var; cumulative price, match length */
+ int dis4; /* -1 for literal, or rep, or match distance + 4 */
+ int prev_index; /* index of prev trial in trials[] */
+ int prev_index2; /* -2 trial is single step */
+ /* -1 literal + rep0 */
+ /* >= 0 ( rep or match ) + literal + rep0 */
+ int reps[num_rep_distances];
+ };
+
+static inline void Tr_update( struct Trial * const trial, const int pr,
+ const int distance4, const int p_i )
+ {
+ if( pr < trial->price )
+ { trial->price = pr; trial->dis4 = distance4; trial->prev_index = p_i;
+ trial->prev_index2 = single_step_trial; }
+ }
+
+static inline void Tr_update2( struct Trial * const trial, const int pr,
+ const int p_i )
+ {
+ if( pr < trial->price )
+ { trial->price = pr; trial->dis4 = 0; trial->prev_index = p_i;
+ trial->prev_index2 = dual_step_trial; }
+ }
+
+static inline void Tr_update3( struct Trial * const trial, const int pr,
+ const int distance4, const int p_i,
+ const int p_i2 )
+ {
+ if( pr < trial->price )
+ { trial->price = pr; trial->dis4 = distance4; trial->prev_index = p_i;
+ trial->prev_index2 = p_i2; }
+ }
+
+
+struct LZ_encoder
+ {
+ struct LZ_encoder_base eb;
+ int cycles;
+ int match_len_limit;
+ struct Len_prices match_len_prices;
+ struct Len_prices rep_len_prices;
+ int pending_num_pairs;
+ struct Pair pairs[max_match_len+1];
+ struct Trial trials[max_num_trials];
+
+ int dis_slot_prices[len_states][2*max_dictionary_bits];
+ int dis_prices[len_states][modeled_distances];
+ int align_prices[dis_align_size];
+ int num_dis_slots;
+ };
+
+static inline bool Mb_dec_pos( struct Matchfinder_base * const mb,
+ const int ahead )
+ {
+ if( ahead < 0 || mb->pos < ahead ) return false;
+ mb->pos -= ahead;
+ if( mb->cyclic_pos < ahead ) mb->cyclic_pos += mb->dictionary_size + 1;
+ mb->cyclic_pos -= ahead;
+ return true;
+ }
+
+int LZe_get_match_pairs( struct LZ_encoder * const e, struct Pair * pairs );
+
+ /* move-to-front dis in/into reps; do nothing if( dis4 <= 0 ) */
+static inline void mtf_reps( const int dis4, int reps[num_rep_distances] )
+ {
+ if( dis4 >= num_rep_distances ) /* match */
+ {
+ reps[3] = reps[2]; reps[2] = reps[1]; reps[1] = reps[0];
+ reps[0] = dis4 - num_rep_distances;
+ }
+ else if( dis4 > 0 ) /* repeated match */
+ {
+ const int distance = reps[dis4];
+ int i; for( i = dis4; i > 0; --i ) reps[i] = reps[i-1];
+ reps[0] = distance;
+ }
+ }
+
+static inline int LZeb_price_shortrep( const struct LZ_encoder_base * const eb,
+ const State state, const int pos_state )
+ {
+ return price0( eb->bm_rep0[state] ) + price0( eb->bm_len[state][pos_state] );
+ }
+
+static inline int LZeb_price_rep( const struct LZ_encoder_base * const eb,
+ const int rep, const State state,
+ const int pos_state )
+ {
+ int price;
+ if( rep == 0 ) return price0( eb->bm_rep0[state] ) +
+ price1( eb->bm_len[state][pos_state] );
+ price = price1( eb->bm_rep0[state] );
+ if( rep == 1 )
+ price += price0( eb->bm_rep1[state] );
+ else
+ {
+ price += price1( eb->bm_rep1[state] );
+ price += price_bit( eb->bm_rep2[state], rep - 2 );
+ }
+ return price;
+ }
+
+static inline int LZe_price_rep0_len( const struct LZ_encoder * const e,
+ const int len, const State state,
+ const int pos_state )
+ {
+ return LZeb_price_rep( &e->eb, 0, state, pos_state ) +
+ Lp_price( &e->rep_len_prices, len, pos_state );
+ }
+
+static inline int LZe_price_pair( const struct LZ_encoder * const e,
+ const int dis, const int len,
+ const int pos_state )
+ {
+ const int price = Lp_price( &e->match_len_prices, len, pos_state );
+ const int len_state = get_len_state( len );
+ if( dis < modeled_distances )
+ return price + e->dis_prices[len_state][dis];
+ else
+ return price + e->dis_slot_prices[len_state][get_slot( dis )] +
+ e->align_prices[dis & (dis_align_size - 1)];
+ }
+
+static inline int LZe_read_match_distances( struct LZ_encoder * const e )
+ {
+ const int num_pairs = LZe_get_match_pairs( e, e->pairs );
+ if( num_pairs > 0 )
+ {
+ const int len = e->pairs[num_pairs-1].len;
+ if( len == e->match_len_limit && len < max_match_len )
+ e->pairs[num_pairs-1].len =
+ Mb_true_match_len( &e->eb.mb, len, e->pairs[num_pairs-1].dis + 1 );
+ }
+ return num_pairs;
+ }
+
+static inline void LZe_move_and_update( struct LZ_encoder * const e, int n )
+ {
+ while( true )
+ {
+ Mb_move_pos( &e->eb.mb );
+ if( --n <= 0 ) break;
+ LZe_get_match_pairs( e, 0 );
+ }
+ }
+
+static inline void LZe_backward( struct LZ_encoder * const e, int cur )
+ {
+ int dis4 = e->trials[cur].dis4;
+ while( cur > 0 )
+ {
+ const int prev_index = e->trials[cur].prev_index;
+ struct Trial * const prev_trial = &e->trials[prev_index];
+
+ if( e->trials[cur].prev_index2 != single_step_trial )
+ {
+ prev_trial->dis4 = -1; /* literal */
+ prev_trial->prev_index = prev_index - 1;
+ prev_trial->prev_index2 = single_step_trial;
+ if( e->trials[cur].prev_index2 >= 0 )
+ {
+ struct Trial * const prev_trial2 = &e->trials[prev_index-1];
+ prev_trial2->dis4 = dis4; dis4 = 0; /* rep0 */
+ prev_trial2->prev_index = e->trials[cur].prev_index2;
+ prev_trial2->prev_index2 = single_step_trial;
+ }
+ }
+ prev_trial->price = cur - prev_index; /* len */
+ cur = dis4; dis4 = prev_trial->dis4; prev_trial->dis4 = cur;
+ cur = prev_index;
+ }
+ }
+
+enum { num_prev_positions3 = 1 << 16,
+ num_prev_positions2 = 1 << 10 };
+
+static inline bool LZe_init( struct LZ_encoder * const e,
+ const int dict_size, const int len_limit,
+ const int ifd, const int outfd )
+ {
+ enum { before_size = max_num_trials,
+ /* bytes to keep in buffer after pos */
+ after_size = ( 2 * max_match_len ) + 1,
+ dict_factor = 2,
+ num_prev_positions23 = num_prev_positions2 + num_prev_positions3,
+ pos_array_factor = 2 };
+
+ if( !LZeb_init( &e->eb, before_size, dict_size, after_size, dict_factor,
+ num_prev_positions23, pos_array_factor, ifd, outfd ) )
+ return false;
+ e->cycles = ( len_limit < max_match_len ) ? 16 + ( len_limit / 2 ) : 256;
+ e->match_len_limit = len_limit;
+ Lp_init( &e->match_len_prices, &e->eb.match_len_model, e->match_len_limit );
+ Lp_init( &e->rep_len_prices, &e->eb.rep_len_model, e->match_len_limit );
+ e->pending_num_pairs = 0;
+ e->num_dis_slots = 2 * real_bits( e->eb.mb.dictionary_size - 1 );
+ e->trials[1].prev_index = 0;
+ e->trials[1].prev_index2 = single_step_trial;
+ return true;
+ }
+
+static inline void LZe_reset( struct LZ_encoder * const e )
+ {
+ LZeb_reset( &e->eb );
+ Lp_reset( &e->match_len_prices );
+ Lp_reset( &e->rep_len_prices );
+ e->pending_num_pairs = 0;
+ }
+
+bool LZe_encode_member( struct LZ_encoder * const e,
+ const unsigned long long member_size );
diff --git a/encoder_base.c b/encoder_base.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..7dd7eca
--- /dev/null
+++ b/encoder_base.c
@@ -0,0 +1,205 @@
+/* Clzip - LZMA lossless data compressor
+ Copyright (C) 2010-2021 Antonio Diaz Diaz.
+
+ This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ the Free Software Foundation, either version 2 of the License, or
+ (at your option) any later version.
+
+ This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
+ GNU General Public License for more details.
+
+ You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+*/
+
+#define _FILE_OFFSET_BITS 64
+
+#include <errno.h>
+#include <stdbool.h>
+#include <stdint.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <string.h>
+
+#include "lzip.h"
+#include "encoder_base.h"
+
+
+Dis_slots dis_slots;
+Prob_prices prob_prices;
+
+
+bool Mb_read_block( struct Matchfinder_base * const mb )
+ {
+ if( !mb->at_stream_end && mb->stream_pos < mb->buffer_size )
+ {
+ const int size = mb->buffer_size - mb->stream_pos;
+ const int rd = readblock( mb->infd, mb->buffer + mb->stream_pos, size );
+ mb->stream_pos += rd;
+ if( rd != size && errno )
+ { show_error( "Read error", errno, false ); cleanup_and_fail( 1 ); }
+ if( rd < size )
+ { mb->at_stream_end = true; mb->pos_limit = mb->buffer_size; }
+ }
+ return mb->pos < mb->stream_pos;
+ }
+
+
+void Mb_normalize_pos( struct Matchfinder_base * const mb )
+ {
+ if( mb->pos > mb->stream_pos )
+ internal_error( "pos > stream_pos in Mb_normalize_pos." );
+ if( !mb->at_stream_end )
+ {
+ int i;
+ /* offset is int32_t for the min below */
+ const int32_t offset = mb->pos - mb->before_size - mb->dictionary_size;
+ const int size = mb->stream_pos - offset;
+ memmove( mb->buffer, mb->buffer + offset, size );
+ mb->partial_data_pos += offset;
+ mb->pos -= offset; /* pos = before_size + dictionary_size */
+ mb->stream_pos -= offset;
+ for( i = 0; i < mb->num_prev_positions; ++i )
+ mb->prev_positions[i] -= min( mb->prev_positions[i], offset );
+ for( i = 0; i < mb->pos_array_size; ++i )
+ mb->pos_array[i] -= min( mb->pos_array[i], offset );
+ Mb_read_block( mb );
+ }
+ }
+
+
+bool Mb_init( struct Matchfinder_base * const mb, const int before_size,
+ const int dict_size, const int after_size,
+ const int dict_factor, const int num_prev_positions23,
+ const int pos_array_factor, const int ifd )
+ {
+ const int buffer_size_limit =
+ ( dict_factor * dict_size ) + before_size + after_size;
+ unsigned size;
+ int i;
+
+ mb->partial_data_pos = 0;
+ mb->before_size = before_size;
+ mb->pos = 0;
+ mb->cyclic_pos = 0;
+ mb->stream_pos = 0;
+ mb->num_prev_positions23 = num_prev_positions23;
+ mb->infd = ifd;
+ mb->at_stream_end = false;
+
+ mb->buffer_size = max( 65536, dict_size );
+ mb->buffer = (uint8_t *)malloc( mb->buffer_size );
+ if( !mb->buffer ) return false;
+ if( Mb_read_block( mb ) && !mb->at_stream_end &&
+ mb->buffer_size < buffer_size_limit )
+ {
+ uint8_t * const tmp = (uint8_t *)realloc( mb->buffer, buffer_size_limit );
+ if( !tmp ) { free( mb->buffer ); return false; }
+ mb->buffer = tmp;
+ mb->buffer_size = buffer_size_limit;
+ Mb_read_block( mb );
+ }
+ if( mb->at_stream_end && mb->stream_pos < dict_size )
+ mb->dictionary_size = max( min_dictionary_size, mb->stream_pos );
+ else
+ mb->dictionary_size = dict_size;
+ mb->pos_limit = mb->buffer_size;
+ if( !mb->at_stream_end ) mb->pos_limit -= after_size;
+ size = 1 << max( 16, real_bits( mb->dictionary_size - 1 ) - 2 );
+ if( mb->dictionary_size > 1 << 26 ) /* 64 MiB */
+ size >>= 1;
+ mb->key4_mask = size - 1; /* increases with dictionary size */
+ size += num_prev_positions23;
+ mb->num_prev_positions = size;
+
+ mb->pos_array_size = pos_array_factor * ( mb->dictionary_size + 1 );
+ size += mb->pos_array_size;
+ if( size * sizeof mb->prev_positions[0] <= size ) mb->prev_positions = 0;
+ else mb->prev_positions =
+ (int32_t *)malloc( size * sizeof mb->prev_positions[0] );
+ if( !mb->prev_positions ) { free( mb->buffer ); return false; }
+ mb->pos_array = mb->prev_positions + mb->num_prev_positions;
+ for( i = 0; i < mb->num_prev_positions; ++i ) mb->prev_positions[i] = 0;
+ return true;
+ }
+
+
+void Mb_reset( struct Matchfinder_base * const mb )
+ {
+ int i;
+ if( mb->stream_pos > mb->pos )
+ memmove( mb->buffer, mb->buffer + mb->pos, mb->stream_pos - mb->pos );
+ mb->partial_data_pos = 0;
+ mb->stream_pos -= mb->pos;
+ mb->pos = 0;
+ mb->cyclic_pos = 0;
+ Mb_read_block( mb );
+ if( mb->at_stream_end && mb->stream_pos < mb->dictionary_size )
+ {
+ int size;
+ mb->dictionary_size = max( min_dictionary_size, mb->stream_pos );
+ size = 1 << max( 16, real_bits( mb->dictionary_size - 1 ) - 2 );
+ if( mb->dictionary_size > 1 << 26 ) /* 64 MiB */
+ size >>= 1;
+ mb->key4_mask = size - 1;
+ size += mb->num_prev_positions23;
+ mb->num_prev_positions = size;
+ mb->pos_array = mb->prev_positions + mb->num_prev_positions;
+ }
+ for( i = 0; i < mb->num_prev_positions; ++i ) mb->prev_positions[i] = 0;
+ }
+
+
+void Re_flush_data( struct Range_encoder * const renc )
+ {
+ if( renc->pos > 0 )
+ {
+ if( renc->outfd >= 0 &&
+ writeblock( renc->outfd, renc->buffer, renc->pos ) != renc->pos )
+ { show_error( "Write error", errno, false ); cleanup_and_fail( 1 ); }
+ renc->partial_member_pos += renc->pos;
+ renc->pos = 0;
+ show_cprogress( 0, 0, 0, 0 );
+ }
+ }
+
+
+/* End Of Stream marker => (dis == 0xFFFFFFFFU, len == min_match_len) */
+void LZeb_full_flush( struct LZ_encoder_base * const eb, const State state )
+ {
+ int i;
+ const int pos_state = Mb_data_position( &eb->mb ) & pos_state_mask;
+ Lzip_trailer trailer;
+ Re_encode_bit( &eb->renc, &eb->bm_match[state][pos_state], 1 );
+ Re_encode_bit( &eb->renc, &eb->bm_rep[state], 0 );
+ LZeb_encode_pair( eb, 0xFFFFFFFFU, min_match_len, pos_state );
+ Re_flush( &eb->renc );
+ Lt_set_data_crc( trailer, LZeb_crc( eb ) );
+ Lt_set_data_size( trailer, Mb_data_position( &eb->mb ) );
+ Lt_set_member_size( trailer, Re_member_position( &eb->renc ) + Lt_size );
+ for( i = 0; i < Lt_size; ++i )
+ Re_put_byte( &eb->renc, trailer[i] );
+ Re_flush_data( &eb->renc );
+ }
+
+
+void LZeb_reset( struct LZ_encoder_base * const eb )
+ {
+ Mb_reset( &eb->mb );
+ eb->crc = 0xFFFFFFFFU;
+ Bm_array_init( eb->bm_literal[0], (1 << literal_context_bits) * 0x300 );
+ Bm_array_init( eb->bm_match[0], states * pos_states );
+ Bm_array_init( eb->bm_rep, states );
+ Bm_array_init( eb->bm_rep0, states );
+ Bm_array_init( eb->bm_rep1, states );
+ Bm_array_init( eb->bm_rep2, states );
+ Bm_array_init( eb->bm_len[0], states * pos_states );
+ Bm_array_init( eb->bm_dis_slot[0], len_states * (1 << dis_slot_bits) );
+ Bm_array_init( eb->bm_dis, modeled_distances - end_dis_model + 1 );
+ Bm_array_init( eb->bm_align, dis_align_size );
+ Lm_init( &eb->match_len_model );
+ Lm_init( &eb->rep_len_model );
+ Re_reset( &eb->renc, eb->mb.dictionary_size );
+ }
diff --git a/encoder_base.h b/encoder_base.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..64f147b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/encoder_base.h
@@ -0,0 +1,516 @@
+/* Clzip - LZMA lossless data compressor
+ Copyright (C) 2010-2021 Antonio Diaz Diaz.
+
+ This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ the Free Software Foundation, either version 2 of the License, or
+ (at your option) any later version.
+
+ This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
+ GNU General Public License for more details.
+
+ You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+*/
+
+enum { price_shift_bits = 6,
+ price_step_bits = 2,
+ price_step = 1 << price_step_bits };
+
+typedef uint8_t Dis_slots[1<<10];
+
+extern Dis_slots dis_slots;
+
+static inline void Dis_slots_init( void )
+ {
+ int i, size, slot;
+ for( slot = 0; slot < 4; ++slot ) dis_slots[slot] = slot;
+ for( i = 4, size = 2, slot = 4; slot < 20; slot += 2 )
+ {
+ memset( &dis_slots[i], slot, size );
+ memset( &dis_slots[i+size], slot + 1, size );
+ size <<= 1;
+ i += size;
+ }
+ }
+
+static inline uint8_t get_slot( const unsigned dis )
+ {
+ if( dis < (1 << 10) ) return dis_slots[dis];
+ if( dis < (1 << 19) ) return dis_slots[dis>> 9] + 18;
+ if( dis < (1 << 28) ) return dis_slots[dis>>18] + 36;
+ return dis_slots[dis>>27] + 54;
+ }
+
+
+typedef short Prob_prices[bit_model_total >> price_step_bits];
+
+extern Prob_prices prob_prices;
+
+static inline void Prob_prices_init( void )
+ {
+ int i, j;
+ for( i = 0; i < bit_model_total >> price_step_bits; ++i )
+ {
+ unsigned val = ( i * price_step ) + ( price_step / 2 );
+ int bits = 0; /* base 2 logarithm of val */
+ for( j = 0; j < price_shift_bits; ++j )
+ {
+ val = val * val;
+ bits <<= 1;
+ while( val >= 1 << 16 ) { val >>= 1; ++bits; }
+ }
+ bits += 15; /* remaining bits in val */
+ prob_prices[i] = ( bit_model_total_bits << price_shift_bits ) - bits;
+ }
+ }
+
+static inline int get_price( const int probability )
+ { return prob_prices[probability >> price_step_bits]; }
+
+
+static inline int price0( const Bit_model probability )
+ { return get_price( probability ); }
+
+static inline int price1( const Bit_model probability )
+ { return get_price( bit_model_total - probability ); }
+
+static inline int price_bit( const Bit_model bm, const bool bit )
+ { return ( bit ? price1( bm ) : price0( bm ) ); }
+
+
+static inline int price_symbol3( const Bit_model bm[], int symbol )
+ {
+ int price;
+ bool bit = symbol & 1;
+ symbol |= 8; symbol >>= 1;
+ price = price_bit( bm[symbol], bit );
+ bit = symbol & 1; symbol >>= 1; price += price_bit( bm[symbol], bit );
+ return price + price_bit( bm[1], symbol & 1 );
+ }
+
+
+static inline int price_symbol6( const Bit_model bm[], unsigned symbol )
+ {
+ int price;
+ bool bit = symbol & 1;
+ symbol |= 64; symbol >>= 1;
+ price = price_bit( bm[symbol], bit );
+ bit = symbol & 1; symbol >>= 1; price += price_bit( bm[symbol], bit );
+ bit = symbol & 1; symbol >>= 1; price += price_bit( bm[symbol], bit );
+ bit = symbol & 1; symbol >>= 1; price += price_bit( bm[symbol], bit );
+ bit = symbol & 1; symbol >>= 1; price += price_bit( bm[symbol], bit );
+ return price + price_bit( bm[1], symbol & 1 );
+ }
+
+
+static inline int price_symbol8( const Bit_model bm[], int symbol )
+ {
+ int price;
+ bool bit = symbol & 1;
+ symbol |= 0x100; symbol >>= 1;
+ price = price_bit( bm[symbol], bit );
+ bit = symbol & 1; symbol >>= 1; price += price_bit( bm[symbol], bit );
+ bit = symbol & 1; symbol >>= 1; price += price_bit( bm[symbol], bit );
+ bit = symbol & 1; symbol >>= 1; price += price_bit( bm[symbol], bit );
+ bit = symbol & 1; symbol >>= 1; price += price_bit( bm[symbol], bit );
+ bit = symbol & 1; symbol >>= 1; price += price_bit( bm[symbol], bit );
+ bit = symbol & 1; symbol >>= 1; price += price_bit( bm[symbol], bit );
+ return price + price_bit( bm[1], symbol & 1 );
+ }
+
+
+static inline int price_symbol_reversed( const Bit_model bm[], int symbol,
+ const int num_bits )
+ {
+ int price = 0;
+ int model = 1;
+ int i;
+ for( i = num_bits; i > 0; --i )
+ {
+ const bool bit = symbol & 1;
+ symbol >>= 1;
+ price += price_bit( bm[model], bit );
+ model <<= 1; model |= bit;
+ }
+ return price;
+ }
+
+
+static inline int price_matched( const Bit_model bm[], unsigned symbol,
+ unsigned match_byte )
+ {
+ int price = 0;
+ unsigned mask = 0x100;
+ symbol |= mask;
+ while( true )
+ {
+ const unsigned match_bit = ( match_byte <<= 1 ) & mask;
+ const bool bit = ( symbol <<= 1 ) & 0x100;
+ price += price_bit( bm[(symbol>>9)+match_bit+mask], bit );
+ if( symbol >= 0x10000 ) return price;
+ mask &= ~(match_bit ^ symbol); /* if( match_bit != bit ) mask = 0; */
+ }
+ }
+
+
+struct Matchfinder_base
+ {
+ unsigned long long partial_data_pos;
+ uint8_t * buffer; /* input buffer */
+ int32_t * prev_positions; /* 1 + last seen position of key. else 0 */
+ int32_t * pos_array; /* may be tree or chain */
+ int before_size; /* bytes to keep in buffer before dictionary */
+ int buffer_size;
+ int dictionary_size; /* bytes to keep in buffer before pos */
+ int pos; /* current pos in buffer */
+ int cyclic_pos; /* cycles through [0, dictionary_size] */
+ int stream_pos; /* first byte not yet read from file */
+ int pos_limit; /* when reached, a new block must be read */
+ int key4_mask;
+ int num_prev_positions23;
+ int num_prev_positions; /* size of prev_positions */
+ int pos_array_size;
+ int infd; /* input file descriptor */
+ bool at_stream_end; /* stream_pos shows real end of file */
+ };
+
+bool Mb_read_block( struct Matchfinder_base * const mb );
+void Mb_normalize_pos( struct Matchfinder_base * const mb );
+
+bool Mb_init( struct Matchfinder_base * const mb, const int before_size,
+ const int dict_size, const int after_size,
+ const int dict_factor, const int num_prev_positions23,
+ const int pos_array_factor, const int ifd );
+
+static inline void Mb_free( struct Matchfinder_base * const mb )
+ { free( mb->prev_positions ); free( mb->buffer ); }
+
+static inline uint8_t Mb_peek( const struct Matchfinder_base * const mb,
+ const int distance )
+ { return mb->buffer[mb->pos-distance]; }
+
+static inline int Mb_available_bytes( const struct Matchfinder_base * const mb )
+ { return mb->stream_pos - mb->pos; }
+
+static inline unsigned long long
+Mb_data_position( const struct Matchfinder_base * const mb )
+ { return mb->partial_data_pos + mb->pos; }
+
+static inline bool Mb_data_finished( const struct Matchfinder_base * const mb )
+ { return mb->at_stream_end && mb->pos >= mb->stream_pos; }
+
+static inline const uint8_t *
+Mb_ptr_to_current_pos( const struct Matchfinder_base * const mb )
+ { return mb->buffer + mb->pos; }
+
+static inline int Mb_true_match_len( const struct Matchfinder_base * const mb,
+ const int index, const int distance )
+ {
+ const uint8_t * const data = mb->buffer + mb->pos;
+ int i = index;
+ const int len_limit = min( Mb_available_bytes( mb ), max_match_len );
+ while( i < len_limit && data[i-distance] == data[i] ) ++i;
+ return i;
+ }
+
+static inline void Mb_move_pos( struct Matchfinder_base * const mb )
+ {
+ if( ++mb->cyclic_pos > mb->dictionary_size ) mb->cyclic_pos = 0;
+ if( ++mb->pos >= mb->pos_limit ) Mb_normalize_pos( mb );
+ }
+
+void Mb_reset( struct Matchfinder_base * const mb );
+
+
+enum { re_buffer_size = 65536 };
+
+struct Range_encoder
+ {
+ uint64_t low;
+ unsigned long long partial_member_pos;
+ uint8_t * buffer; /* output buffer */
+ int pos; /* current pos in buffer */
+ uint32_t range;
+ unsigned ff_count;
+ int outfd; /* output file descriptor */
+ uint8_t cache;
+ Lzip_header header;
+ };
+
+void Re_flush_data( struct Range_encoder * const renc );
+
+static inline void Re_put_byte( struct Range_encoder * const renc,
+ const uint8_t b )
+ {
+ renc->buffer[renc->pos] = b;
+ if( ++renc->pos >= re_buffer_size ) Re_flush_data( renc );
+ }
+
+static inline void Re_shift_low( struct Range_encoder * const renc )
+ {
+ if( renc->low >> 24 != 0xFF )
+ {
+ const bool carry = ( renc->low > 0xFFFFFFFFU );
+ Re_put_byte( renc, renc->cache + carry );
+ for( ; renc->ff_count > 0; --renc->ff_count )
+ Re_put_byte( renc, 0xFF + carry );
+ renc->cache = renc->low >> 24;
+ }
+ else ++renc->ff_count;
+ renc->low = ( renc->low & 0x00FFFFFFU ) << 8;
+ }
+
+static inline void Re_reset( struct Range_encoder * const renc,
+ const unsigned dictionary_size )
+ {
+ int i;
+ renc->low = 0;
+ renc->partial_member_pos = 0;
+ renc->pos = 0;
+ renc->range = 0xFFFFFFFFU;
+ renc->ff_count = 0;
+ renc->cache = 0;
+ Lh_set_dictionary_size( renc->header, dictionary_size );
+ for( i = 0; i < Lh_size; ++i )
+ Re_put_byte( renc, renc->header[i] );
+ }
+
+static inline bool Re_init( struct Range_encoder * const renc,
+ const unsigned dictionary_size, const int ofd )
+ {
+ renc->buffer = (uint8_t *)malloc( re_buffer_size );
+ if( !renc->buffer ) return false;
+ renc->outfd = ofd;
+ Lh_set_magic( renc->header );
+ Re_reset( renc, dictionary_size );
+ return true;
+ }
+
+static inline void Re_free( struct Range_encoder * const renc )
+ { free( renc->buffer ); }
+
+static inline unsigned long long
+Re_member_position( const struct Range_encoder * const renc )
+ { return renc->partial_member_pos + renc->pos + renc->ff_count; }
+
+static inline void Re_flush( struct Range_encoder * const renc )
+ { int i; for( i = 0; i < 5; ++i ) Re_shift_low( renc ); }
+
+static inline void Re_encode( struct Range_encoder * const renc,
+ const int symbol, const int num_bits )
+ {
+ unsigned mask;
+ for( mask = 1 << ( num_bits - 1 ); mask > 0; mask >>= 1 )
+ {
+ renc->range >>= 1;
+ if( symbol & mask ) renc->low += renc->range;
+ if( renc->range <= 0x00FFFFFFU )
+ { renc->range <<= 8; Re_shift_low( renc ); }
+ }
+ }
+
+static inline void Re_encode_bit( struct Range_encoder * const renc,
+ Bit_model * const probability, const bool bit )
+ {
+ const uint32_t bound = ( renc->range >> bit_model_total_bits ) * *probability;
+ if( !bit )
+ {
+ renc->range = bound;
+ *probability += (bit_model_total - *probability) >> bit_model_move_bits;
+ }
+ else
+ {
+ renc->low += bound;
+ renc->range -= bound;
+ *probability -= *probability >> bit_model_move_bits;
+ }
+ if( renc->range <= 0x00FFFFFFU ) { renc->range <<= 8; Re_shift_low( renc ); }
+ }
+
+static inline void Re_encode_tree3( struct Range_encoder * const renc,
+ Bit_model bm[], const int symbol )
+ {
+ int model;
+ bool bit = ( symbol >> 2 ) & 1;
+ Re_encode_bit( renc, &bm[1], bit );
+ model = 2 | bit;
+ bit = ( symbol >> 1 ) & 1;
+ Re_encode_bit( renc, &bm[model], bit ); model <<= 1; model |= bit;
+ Re_encode_bit( renc, &bm[model], symbol & 1 );
+ }
+
+static inline void Re_encode_tree6( struct Range_encoder * const renc,
+ Bit_model bm[], const unsigned symbol )
+ {
+ int model;
+ bool bit = ( symbol >> 5 ) & 1;
+ Re_encode_bit( renc, &bm[1], bit );
+ model = 2 | bit;
+ bit = ( symbol >> 4 ) & 1;
+ Re_encode_bit( renc, &bm[model], bit ); model <<= 1; model |= bit;
+ bit = ( symbol >> 3 ) & 1;
+ Re_encode_bit( renc, &bm[model], bit ); model <<= 1; model |= bit;
+ bit = ( symbol >> 2 ) & 1;
+ Re_encode_bit( renc, &bm[model], bit ); model <<= 1; model |= bit;
+ bit = ( symbol >> 1 ) & 1;
+ Re_encode_bit( renc, &bm[model], bit ); model <<= 1; model |= bit;
+ Re_encode_bit( renc, &bm[model], symbol & 1 );
+ }
+
+static inline void Re_encode_tree8( struct Range_encoder * const renc,
+ Bit_model bm[], const int symbol )
+ {
+ int model = 1;
+ int i;
+ for( i = 7; i >= 0; --i )
+ {
+ const bool bit = ( symbol >> i ) & 1;
+ Re_encode_bit( renc, &bm[model], bit );
+ model <<= 1; model |= bit;
+ }
+ }
+
+static inline void Re_encode_tree_reversed( struct Range_encoder * const renc,
+ Bit_model bm[], int symbol, const int num_bits )
+ {
+ int model = 1;
+ int i;
+ for( i = num_bits; i > 0; --i )
+ {
+ const bool bit = symbol & 1;
+ symbol >>= 1;
+ Re_encode_bit( renc, &bm[model], bit );
+ model <<= 1; model |= bit;
+ }
+ }
+
+static inline void Re_encode_matched( struct Range_encoder * const renc,
+ Bit_model bm[], unsigned symbol,
+ unsigned match_byte )
+ {
+ unsigned mask = 0x100;
+ symbol |= mask;
+ while( true )
+ {
+ const unsigned match_bit = ( match_byte <<= 1 ) & mask;
+ const bool bit = ( symbol <<= 1 ) & 0x100;
+ Re_encode_bit( renc, &bm[(symbol>>9)+match_bit+mask], bit );
+ if( symbol >= 0x10000 ) break;
+ mask &= ~(match_bit ^ symbol); /* if( match_bit != bit ) mask = 0; */
+ }
+ }
+
+static inline void Re_encode_len( struct Range_encoder * const renc,
+ struct Len_model * const lm,
+ int symbol, const int pos_state )
+ {
+ bool bit = ( ( symbol -= min_match_len ) >= len_low_symbols );
+ Re_encode_bit( renc, &lm->choice1, bit );
+ if( !bit )
+ Re_encode_tree3( renc, lm->bm_low[pos_state], symbol );
+ else
+ {
+ bit = ( ( symbol -= len_low_symbols ) >= len_mid_symbols );
+ Re_encode_bit( renc, &lm->choice2, bit );
+ if( !bit )
+ Re_encode_tree3( renc, lm->bm_mid[pos_state], symbol );
+ else
+ Re_encode_tree8( renc, lm->bm_high, symbol - len_mid_symbols );
+ }
+ }
+
+
+enum { max_marker_size = 16,
+ num_rep_distances = 4 }; /* must be 4 */
+
+struct LZ_encoder_base
+ {
+ struct Matchfinder_base mb;
+ uint32_t crc;
+
+ Bit_model bm_literal[1<<literal_context_bits][0x300];
+ Bit_model bm_match[states][pos_states];
+ Bit_model bm_rep[states];
+ Bit_model bm_rep0[states];
+ Bit_model bm_rep1[states];
+ Bit_model bm_rep2[states];
+ Bit_model bm_len[states][pos_states];
+ Bit_model bm_dis_slot[len_states][1<<dis_slot_bits];
+ Bit_model bm_dis[modeled_distances-end_dis_model+1];
+ Bit_model bm_align[dis_align_size];
+ struct Len_model match_len_model;
+ struct Len_model rep_len_model;
+ struct Range_encoder renc;
+ };
+
+void LZeb_reset( struct LZ_encoder_base * const eb );
+
+static inline bool LZeb_init( struct LZ_encoder_base * const eb,
+ const int before_size, const int dict_size,
+ const int after_size, const int dict_factor,
+ const int num_prev_positions23,
+ const int pos_array_factor,
+ const int ifd, const int outfd )
+ {
+ if( !Mb_init( &eb->mb, before_size, dict_size, after_size, dict_factor,
+ num_prev_positions23, pos_array_factor, ifd ) ) return false;
+ if( !Re_init( &eb->renc, eb->mb.dictionary_size, outfd ) ) return false;
+ LZeb_reset( eb );
+ return true;
+ }
+
+static inline void LZeb_free( struct LZ_encoder_base * const eb )
+ { Re_free( &eb->renc ); Mb_free( &eb->mb ); }
+
+static inline unsigned LZeb_crc( const struct LZ_encoder_base * const eb )
+ { return eb->crc ^ 0xFFFFFFFFU; }
+
+static inline int LZeb_price_literal( const struct LZ_encoder_base * const eb,
+ const uint8_t prev_byte, const uint8_t symbol )
+ { return price_symbol8( eb->bm_literal[get_lit_state(prev_byte)], symbol ); }
+
+static inline int LZeb_price_matched( const struct LZ_encoder_base * const eb,
+ const uint8_t prev_byte, const uint8_t symbol, const uint8_t match_byte )
+ { return price_matched( eb->bm_literal[get_lit_state(prev_byte)], symbol,
+ match_byte ); }
+
+static inline void LZeb_encode_literal( struct LZ_encoder_base * const eb,
+ const uint8_t prev_byte, const uint8_t symbol )
+ { Re_encode_tree8( &eb->renc, eb->bm_literal[get_lit_state(prev_byte)],
+ symbol ); }
+
+static inline void LZeb_encode_matched( struct LZ_encoder_base * const eb,
+ const uint8_t prev_byte, const uint8_t symbol, const uint8_t match_byte )
+ { Re_encode_matched( &eb->renc, eb->bm_literal[get_lit_state(prev_byte)],
+ symbol, match_byte ); }
+
+static inline void LZeb_encode_pair( struct LZ_encoder_base * const eb,
+ const unsigned dis, const int len,
+ const int pos_state )
+ {
+ const unsigned dis_slot = get_slot( dis );
+ Re_encode_len( &eb->renc, &eb->match_len_model, len, pos_state );
+ Re_encode_tree6( &eb->renc, eb->bm_dis_slot[get_len_state(len)], dis_slot );
+
+ if( dis_slot >= start_dis_model )
+ {
+ const int direct_bits = ( dis_slot >> 1 ) - 1;
+ const unsigned base = ( 2 | ( dis_slot & 1 ) ) << direct_bits;
+ const unsigned direct_dis = dis - base;
+
+ if( dis_slot < end_dis_model )
+ Re_encode_tree_reversed( &eb->renc, eb->bm_dis + ( base - dis_slot ),
+ direct_dis, direct_bits );
+ else
+ {
+ Re_encode( &eb->renc, direct_dis >> dis_align_bits,
+ direct_bits - dis_align_bits );
+ Re_encode_tree_reversed( &eb->renc, eb->bm_align, direct_dis, dis_align_bits );
+ }
+ }
+ }
+
+void LZeb_full_flush( struct LZ_encoder_base * const eb, const State state );
diff --git a/fast_encoder.c b/fast_encoder.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..1904428
--- /dev/null
+++ b/fast_encoder.c
@@ -0,0 +1,191 @@
+/* Clzip - LZMA lossless data compressor
+ Copyright (C) 2010-2021 Antonio Diaz Diaz.
+
+ This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ the Free Software Foundation, either version 2 of the License, or
+ (at your option) any later version.
+
+ This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
+ GNU General Public License for more details.
+
+ You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+*/
+
+#define _FILE_OFFSET_BITS 64
+
+#include <errno.h>
+#include <stdbool.h>
+#include <stdint.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <string.h>
+
+#include "lzip.h"
+#include "encoder_base.h"
+#include "fast_encoder.h"
+
+
+int FLZe_longest_match_len( struct FLZ_encoder * const fe, int * const distance )
+ {
+ enum { len_limit = 16 };
+ const uint8_t * const data = Mb_ptr_to_current_pos( &fe->eb.mb );
+ int32_t * ptr0 = fe->eb.mb.pos_array + fe->eb.mb.cyclic_pos;
+ const int pos1 = fe->eb.mb.pos + 1;
+ int maxlen = 0, newpos1, count;
+ const int available = min( Mb_available_bytes( &fe->eb.mb ), max_match_len );
+ if( available < len_limit ) return 0;
+
+ fe->key4 = ( ( fe->key4 << 4 ) ^ data[3] ) & fe->eb.mb.key4_mask;
+ newpos1 = fe->eb.mb.prev_positions[fe->key4];
+ fe->eb.mb.prev_positions[fe->key4] = pos1;
+
+ for( count = 4; ; )
+ {
+ int32_t * newptr;
+ int delta;
+ if( newpos1 <= 0 || --count < 0 ||
+ ( delta = pos1 - newpos1 ) > fe->eb.mb.dictionary_size )
+ { *ptr0 = 0; break; }
+ newptr = fe->eb.mb.pos_array +
+ ( fe->eb.mb.cyclic_pos - delta +
+ ( ( fe->eb.mb.cyclic_pos >= delta ) ? 0 : fe->eb.mb.dictionary_size + 1 ) );
+
+ if( data[maxlen-delta] == data[maxlen] )
+ {
+ int len = 0;
+ while( len < available && data[len-delta] == data[len] ) ++len;
+ if( maxlen < len )
+ { maxlen = len; *distance = delta - 1;
+ if( maxlen >= len_limit ) { *ptr0 = *newptr; break; } }
+ }
+
+ *ptr0 = newpos1;
+ ptr0 = newptr;
+ newpos1 = *ptr0;
+ }
+ return maxlen;
+ }
+
+
+bool FLZe_encode_member( struct FLZ_encoder * const fe,
+ const unsigned long long member_size )
+ {
+ const unsigned long long member_size_limit =
+ member_size - Lt_size - max_marker_size;
+ int rep = 0, i;
+ int reps[num_rep_distances];
+ State state = 0;
+ for( i = 0; i < num_rep_distances; ++i ) reps[i] = 0;
+
+ if( Mb_data_position( &fe->eb.mb ) != 0 ||
+ Re_member_position( &fe->eb.renc ) != Lh_size )
+ return false; /* can be called only once */
+
+ if( !Mb_data_finished( &fe->eb.mb ) ) /* encode first byte */
+ {
+ const uint8_t prev_byte = 0;
+ const uint8_t cur_byte = Mb_peek( &fe->eb.mb, 0 );
+ Re_encode_bit( &fe->eb.renc, &fe->eb.bm_match[state][0], 0 );
+ LZeb_encode_literal( &fe->eb, prev_byte, cur_byte );
+ CRC32_update_byte( &fe->eb.crc, cur_byte );
+ FLZe_reset_key4( fe );
+ FLZe_update_and_move( fe, 1 );
+ }
+
+ while( !Mb_data_finished( &fe->eb.mb ) &&
+ Re_member_position( &fe->eb.renc ) < member_size_limit )
+ {
+ int match_distance;
+ const int main_len = FLZe_longest_match_len( fe, &match_distance );
+ const int pos_state = Mb_data_position( &fe->eb.mb ) & pos_state_mask;
+ int len = 0;
+
+ for( i = 0; i < num_rep_distances; ++i )
+ {
+ const int tlen = Mb_true_match_len( &fe->eb.mb, 0, reps[i] + 1 );
+ if( tlen > len ) { len = tlen; rep = i; }
+ }
+ if( len > min_match_len && len + 3 > main_len )
+ {
+ CRC32_update_buf( &fe->eb.crc, Mb_ptr_to_current_pos( &fe->eb.mb ), len );
+ Re_encode_bit( &fe->eb.renc, &fe->eb.bm_match[state][pos_state], 1 );
+ Re_encode_bit( &fe->eb.renc, &fe->eb.bm_rep[state], 1 );
+ Re_encode_bit( &fe->eb.renc, &fe->eb.bm_rep0[state], rep != 0 );
+ if( rep == 0 )
+ Re_encode_bit( &fe->eb.renc, &fe->eb.bm_len[state][pos_state], 1 );
+ else
+ {
+ int distance;
+ Re_encode_bit( &fe->eb.renc, &fe->eb.bm_rep1[state], rep > 1 );
+ if( rep > 1 )
+ Re_encode_bit( &fe->eb.renc, &fe->eb.bm_rep2[state], rep > 2 );
+ distance = reps[rep];
+ for( i = rep; i > 0; --i ) reps[i] = reps[i-1];
+ reps[0] = distance;
+ }
+ state = St_set_rep( state );
+ Re_encode_len( &fe->eb.renc, &fe->eb.rep_len_model, len, pos_state );
+ Mb_move_pos( &fe->eb.mb );
+ FLZe_update_and_move( fe, len - 1 );
+ continue;
+ }
+
+ if( main_len > min_match_len )
+ {
+ CRC32_update_buf( &fe->eb.crc, Mb_ptr_to_current_pos( &fe->eb.mb ), main_len );
+ Re_encode_bit( &fe->eb.renc, &fe->eb.bm_match[state][pos_state], 1 );
+ Re_encode_bit( &fe->eb.renc, &fe->eb.bm_rep[state], 0 );
+ state = St_set_match( state );
+ for( i = num_rep_distances - 1; i > 0; --i ) reps[i] = reps[i-1];
+ reps[0] = match_distance;
+ LZeb_encode_pair( &fe->eb, match_distance, main_len, pos_state );
+ Mb_move_pos( &fe->eb.mb );
+ FLZe_update_and_move( fe, main_len - 1 );
+ continue;
+ }
+
+ {
+ const uint8_t prev_byte = Mb_peek( &fe->eb.mb, 1 );
+ const uint8_t cur_byte = Mb_peek( &fe->eb.mb, 0 );
+ const uint8_t match_byte = Mb_peek( &fe->eb.mb, reps[0] + 1 );
+ Mb_move_pos( &fe->eb.mb );
+ CRC32_update_byte( &fe->eb.crc, cur_byte );
+
+ if( match_byte == cur_byte )
+ {
+ const int short_rep_price = price1( fe->eb.bm_match[state][pos_state] ) +
+ price1( fe->eb.bm_rep[state] ) +
+ price0( fe->eb.bm_rep0[state] ) +
+ price0( fe->eb.bm_len[state][pos_state] );
+ int price = price0( fe->eb.bm_match[state][pos_state] );
+ if( St_is_char( state ) )
+ price += LZeb_price_literal( &fe->eb, prev_byte, cur_byte );
+ else
+ price += LZeb_price_matched( &fe->eb, prev_byte, cur_byte, match_byte );
+ if( short_rep_price < price )
+ {
+ Re_encode_bit( &fe->eb.renc, &fe->eb.bm_match[state][pos_state], 1 );
+ Re_encode_bit( &fe->eb.renc, &fe->eb.bm_rep[state], 1 );
+ Re_encode_bit( &fe->eb.renc, &fe->eb.bm_rep0[state], 0 );
+ Re_encode_bit( &fe->eb.renc, &fe->eb.bm_len[state][pos_state], 0 );
+ state = St_set_short_rep( state );
+ continue;
+ }
+ }
+
+ /* literal byte */
+ Re_encode_bit( &fe->eb.renc, &fe->eb.bm_match[state][pos_state], 0 );
+ if( St_is_char( state ) )
+ LZeb_encode_literal( &fe->eb, prev_byte, cur_byte );
+ else
+ LZeb_encode_matched( &fe->eb, prev_byte, cur_byte, match_byte );
+ state = St_set_char( state );
+ }
+ }
+
+ LZeb_full_flush( &fe->eb, state );
+ return true;
+ }
diff --git a/fast_encoder.h b/fast_encoder.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..868128c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/fast_encoder.h
@@ -0,0 +1,68 @@
+/* Clzip - LZMA lossless data compressor
+ Copyright (C) 2010-2021 Antonio Diaz Diaz.
+
+ This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ the Free Software Foundation, either version 2 of the License, or
+ (at your option) any later version.
+
+ This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
+ GNU General Public License for more details.
+
+ You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+*/
+
+struct FLZ_encoder
+ {
+ struct LZ_encoder_base eb;
+ unsigned key4; /* key made from latest 4 bytes */
+ };
+
+static inline void FLZe_reset_key4( struct FLZ_encoder * const fe )
+ {
+ int i;
+ fe->key4 = 0;
+ for( i = 0; i < 3 && i < Mb_available_bytes( &fe->eb.mb ); ++i )
+ fe->key4 = ( fe->key4 << 4 ) ^ fe->eb.mb.buffer[i];
+ }
+
+int FLZe_longest_match_len( struct FLZ_encoder * const fe, int * const distance );
+
+static inline void FLZe_update_and_move( struct FLZ_encoder * const fe, int n )
+ {
+ struct Matchfinder_base * const mb = &fe->eb.mb;
+ while( --n >= 0 )
+ {
+ if( Mb_available_bytes( mb ) >= 4 )
+ {
+ fe->key4 = ( ( fe->key4 << 4 ) ^ mb->buffer[mb->pos+3] ) & mb->key4_mask;
+ mb->pos_array[mb->cyclic_pos] = mb->prev_positions[fe->key4];
+ mb->prev_positions[fe->key4] = mb->pos + 1;
+ }
+ Mb_move_pos( mb );
+ }
+ }
+
+static inline bool FLZe_init( struct FLZ_encoder * const fe,
+ const int ifd, const int outfd )
+ {
+ enum { before_size = 0,
+ dict_size = 65536,
+ /* bytes to keep in buffer after pos */
+ after_size = max_match_len,
+ dict_factor = 16,
+ num_prev_positions23 = 0,
+ pos_array_factor = 1 };
+
+ return LZeb_init( &fe->eb, before_size, dict_size, after_size, dict_factor,
+ num_prev_positions23, pos_array_factor, ifd, outfd );
+ }
+
+static inline void FLZe_reset( struct FLZ_encoder * const fe )
+ { LZeb_reset( &fe->eb ); }
+
+bool FLZe_encode_member( struct FLZ_encoder * const fe,
+ const unsigned long long member_size );
diff --git a/list.c b/list.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..dbf79bc
--- /dev/null
+++ b/list.c
@@ -0,0 +1,114 @@
+/* Clzip - LZMA lossless data compressor
+ Copyright (C) 2010-2021 Antonio Diaz Diaz.
+
+ This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ the Free Software Foundation, either version 2 of the License, or
+ (at your option) any later version.
+
+ This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
+ GNU General Public License for more details.
+
+ You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+*/
+
+#define _FILE_OFFSET_BITS 64
+
+#include <stdbool.h>
+#include <stdint.h>
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#include <sys/stat.h>
+
+#include "lzip.h"
+#include "lzip_index.h"
+
+
+static void list_line( const unsigned long long uncomp_size,
+ const unsigned long long comp_size,
+ const char * const input_filename )
+ {
+ if( uncomp_size > 0 )
+ printf( "%14llu %14llu %6.2f%% %s\n", uncomp_size, comp_size,
+ 100.0 - ( ( 100.0 * comp_size ) / uncomp_size ),
+ input_filename );
+ else
+ printf( "%14llu %14llu -INF%% %s\n", uncomp_size, comp_size,
+ input_filename );
+ }
+
+
+int list_files( const char * const filenames[], const int num_filenames,
+ const bool ignore_trailing, const bool loose_trailing )
+ {
+ unsigned long long total_comp = 0, total_uncomp = 0;
+ int files = 0, retval = 0;
+ int i;
+ bool first_post = true;
+ bool stdin_used = false;
+ for( i = 0; i < num_filenames; ++i )
+ {
+ const char * input_filename;
+ struct Lzip_index lzip_index;
+ struct stat in_stats; /* not used */
+ int infd;
+ const bool from_stdin = ( strcmp( filenames[i], "-" ) == 0 );
+ if( from_stdin ) { if( stdin_used ) continue; else stdin_used = true; }
+ input_filename = from_stdin ? "(stdin)" : filenames[i];
+ infd = from_stdin ? STDIN_FILENO :
+ open_instream( input_filename, &in_stats, false, true );
+ if( infd < 0 ) { set_retval( &retval, 1 ); continue; }
+
+ Li_init( &lzip_index, infd, ignore_trailing, loose_trailing );
+ close( infd );
+ if( lzip_index.retval != 0 )
+ {
+ show_file_error( input_filename, lzip_index.error, 0 );
+ set_retval( &retval, lzip_index.retval );
+ Li_free( &lzip_index ); continue;
+ }
+ if( verbosity >= 0 )
+ {
+ const unsigned long long udata_size = Li_udata_size( &lzip_index );
+ const unsigned long long cdata_size = Li_cdata_size( &lzip_index );
+ total_comp += cdata_size; total_uncomp += udata_size; ++files;
+ if( first_post )
+ {
+ first_post = false;
+ if( verbosity >= 1 ) fputs( " dict memb trail ", stdout );
+ fputs( " uncompressed compressed saved name\n", stdout );
+ }
+ if( verbosity >= 1 )
+ printf( "%s %5ld %6lld ", format_ds( lzip_index.dictionary_size ),
+ lzip_index.members, Li_file_size( &lzip_index ) - cdata_size );
+ list_line( udata_size, cdata_size, input_filename );
+
+ if( verbosity >= 2 && lzip_index.members > 1 )
+ {
+ long i;
+ fputs( " member data_pos data_size member_pos member_size\n", stdout );
+ for( i = 0; i < lzip_index.members; ++i )
+ {
+ const struct Block * db = Li_dblock( &lzip_index, i );
+ const struct Block * mb = Li_mblock( &lzip_index, i );
+ printf( "%6ld %14llu %14llu %14llu %14llu\n",
+ i + 1, db->pos, db->size, mb->pos, mb->size );
+ }
+ first_post = true; /* reprint heading after list of members */
+ }
+ fflush( stdout );
+ }
+ Li_free( &lzip_index );
+ }
+ if( verbosity >= 0 && files > 1 )
+ {
+ if( verbosity >= 1 ) fputs( " ", stdout );
+ list_line( total_uncomp, total_comp, "(totals)" );
+ fflush( stdout );
+ }
+ return retval;
+ }
diff --git a/lzip.h b/lzip.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..88f69ca
--- /dev/null
+++ b/lzip.h
@@ -0,0 +1,325 @@
+/* Clzip - LZMA lossless data compressor
+ Copyright (C) 2010-2021 Antonio Diaz Diaz.
+
+ This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ the Free Software Foundation, either version 2 of the License, or
+ (at your option) any later version.
+
+ This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
+ GNU General Public License for more details.
+
+ You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+*/
+
+#ifndef max
+ #define max(x,y) ((x) >= (y) ? (x) : (y))
+#endif
+#ifndef min
+ #define min(x,y) ((x) <= (y) ? (x) : (y))
+#endif
+
+typedef int State;
+
+enum { states = 12 };
+
+static inline bool St_is_char( const State st ) { return st < 7; }
+
+static inline State St_set_char( const State st )
+ {
+ static const State next[states] = { 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 4, 5 };
+ return next[st];
+ }
+
+static inline State St_set_char_rep() { return 8; }
+
+static inline State St_set_match( const State st )
+ { return ( ( st < 7 ) ? 7 : 10 ); }
+
+static inline State St_set_rep( const State st )
+ { return ( ( st < 7 ) ? 8 : 11 ); }
+
+static inline State St_set_short_rep( const State st )
+ { return ( ( st < 7 ) ? 9 : 11 ); }
+
+
+enum {
+ min_dictionary_bits = 12,
+ min_dictionary_size = 1 << min_dictionary_bits, /* >= modeled_distances */
+ max_dictionary_bits = 29,
+ max_dictionary_size = 1 << max_dictionary_bits,
+ min_member_size = 36,
+ literal_context_bits = 3,
+ literal_pos_state_bits = 0, /* not used */
+ pos_state_bits = 2,
+ pos_states = 1 << pos_state_bits,
+ pos_state_mask = pos_states - 1,
+
+ len_states = 4,
+ dis_slot_bits = 6,
+ start_dis_model = 4,
+ end_dis_model = 14,
+ modeled_distances = 1 << (end_dis_model / 2), /* 128 */
+ dis_align_bits = 4,
+ dis_align_size = 1 << dis_align_bits,
+
+ len_low_bits = 3,
+ len_mid_bits = 3,
+ len_high_bits = 8,
+ len_low_symbols = 1 << len_low_bits,
+ len_mid_symbols = 1 << len_mid_bits,
+ len_high_symbols = 1 << len_high_bits,
+ max_len_symbols = len_low_symbols + len_mid_symbols + len_high_symbols,
+
+ min_match_len = 2, /* must be 2 */
+ max_match_len = min_match_len + max_len_symbols - 1, /* 273 */
+ min_match_len_limit = 5 };
+
+static inline int get_len_state( const int len )
+ { return min( len - min_match_len, len_states - 1 ); }
+
+static inline int get_lit_state( const uint8_t prev_byte )
+ { return prev_byte >> ( 8 - literal_context_bits ); }
+
+
+enum { bit_model_move_bits = 5,
+ bit_model_total_bits = 11,
+ bit_model_total = 1 << bit_model_total_bits };
+
+typedef int Bit_model;
+
+static inline void Bm_init( Bit_model * const probability )
+ { *probability = bit_model_total / 2; }
+
+static inline void Bm_array_init( Bit_model bm[], const int size )
+ { int i; for( i = 0; i < size; ++i ) Bm_init( &bm[i] ); }
+
+struct Len_model
+ {
+ Bit_model choice1;
+ Bit_model choice2;
+ Bit_model bm_low[pos_states][len_low_symbols];
+ Bit_model bm_mid[pos_states][len_mid_symbols];
+ Bit_model bm_high[len_high_symbols];
+ };
+
+static inline void Lm_init( struct Len_model * const lm )
+ {
+ Bm_init( &lm->choice1 );
+ Bm_init( &lm->choice2 );
+ Bm_array_init( lm->bm_low[0], pos_states * len_low_symbols );
+ Bm_array_init( lm->bm_mid[0], pos_states * len_mid_symbols );
+ Bm_array_init( lm->bm_high, len_high_symbols );
+ }
+
+
+typedef uint32_t CRC32[256]; /* Table of CRCs of all 8-bit messages. */
+
+extern CRC32 crc32;
+
+static inline void CRC32_init( void )
+ {
+ unsigned n;
+ for( n = 0; n < 256; ++n )
+ {
+ unsigned c = n;
+ int k;
+ for( k = 0; k < 8; ++k )
+ { if( c & 1 ) c = 0xEDB88320U ^ ( c >> 1 ); else c >>= 1; }
+ crc32[n] = c;
+ }
+ }
+
+static inline void CRC32_update_byte( uint32_t * const crc, const uint8_t byte )
+ { *crc = crc32[(*crc^byte)&0xFF] ^ ( *crc >> 8 ); }
+
+static inline void CRC32_update_buf( uint32_t * const crc,
+ const uint8_t * const buffer,
+ const int size )
+ {
+ int i;
+ uint32_t c = *crc;
+ for( i = 0; i < size; ++i )
+ c = crc32[(c^buffer[i])&0xFF] ^ ( c >> 8 );
+ *crc = c;
+ }
+
+
+static inline bool isvalid_ds( const unsigned dictionary_size )
+ { return ( dictionary_size >= min_dictionary_size &&
+ dictionary_size <= max_dictionary_size ); }
+
+
+static inline int real_bits( unsigned value )
+ {
+ int bits = 0;
+ while( value > 0 ) { value >>= 1; ++bits; }
+ return bits;
+ }
+
+
+static const uint8_t lzip_magic[4] = { 0x4C, 0x5A, 0x49, 0x50 }; /* "LZIP" */
+
+typedef uint8_t Lzip_header[6]; /* 0-3 magic bytes */
+ /* 4 version */
+ /* 5 coded dictionary size */
+enum { Lh_size = 6 };
+
+static inline void Lh_set_magic( Lzip_header data )
+ { memcpy( data, lzip_magic, 4 ); data[4] = 1; }
+
+static inline bool Lh_verify_magic( const Lzip_header data )
+ { return ( memcmp( data, lzip_magic, 4 ) == 0 ); }
+
+/* detect (truncated) header */
+static inline bool Lh_verify_prefix( const Lzip_header data, const int sz )
+ {
+ int i; for( i = 0; i < sz && i < 4; ++i )
+ if( data[i] != lzip_magic[i] ) return false;
+ return ( sz > 0 );
+ }
+
+/* detect corrupt header */
+static inline bool Lh_verify_corrupt( const Lzip_header data )
+ {
+ int matches = 0;
+ int i; for( i = 0; i < 4; ++i )
+ if( data[i] == lzip_magic[i] ) ++matches;
+ return ( matches > 1 && matches < 4 );
+ }
+
+static inline uint8_t Lh_version( const Lzip_header data )
+ { return data[4]; }
+
+static inline bool Lh_verify_version( const Lzip_header data )
+ { return ( data[4] == 1 ); }
+
+static inline unsigned Lh_get_dictionary_size( const Lzip_header data )
+ {
+ unsigned sz = ( 1 << ( data[5] & 0x1F ) );
+ if( sz > min_dictionary_size )
+ sz -= ( sz / 16 ) * ( ( data[5] >> 5 ) & 7 );
+ return sz;
+ }
+
+static inline bool Lh_set_dictionary_size( Lzip_header data, const unsigned sz )
+ {
+ if( !isvalid_ds( sz ) ) return false;
+ data[5] = real_bits( sz - 1 );
+ if( sz > min_dictionary_size )
+ {
+ const unsigned base_size = 1 << data[5];
+ const unsigned fraction = base_size / 16;
+ unsigned i;
+ for( i = 7; i >= 1; --i )
+ if( base_size - ( i * fraction ) >= sz )
+ { data[5] |= ( i << 5 ); break; }
+ }
+ return true;
+ }
+
+static inline bool Lh_verify( const Lzip_header data )
+ {
+ return Lh_verify_magic( data ) && Lh_verify_version( data ) &&
+ isvalid_ds( Lh_get_dictionary_size( data ) );
+ }
+
+
+typedef uint8_t Lzip_trailer[20];
+ /* 0-3 CRC32 of the uncompressed data */
+ /* 4-11 size of the uncompressed data */
+ /* 12-19 member size including header and trailer */
+enum { Lt_size = 20 };
+
+static inline unsigned Lt_get_data_crc( const Lzip_trailer data )
+ {
+ unsigned tmp = 0;
+ int i; for( i = 3; i >= 0; --i ) { tmp <<= 8; tmp += data[i]; }
+ return tmp;
+ }
+
+static inline void Lt_set_data_crc( Lzip_trailer data, unsigned crc )
+ { int i; for( i = 0; i <= 3; ++i ) { data[i] = (uint8_t)crc; crc >>= 8; } }
+
+static inline unsigned long long Lt_get_data_size( const Lzip_trailer data )
+ {
+ unsigned long long tmp = 0;
+ int i; for( i = 11; i >= 4; --i ) { tmp <<= 8; tmp += data[i]; }
+ return tmp;
+ }
+
+static inline void Lt_set_data_size( Lzip_trailer data, unsigned long long sz )
+ { int i; for( i = 4; i <= 11; ++i ) { data[i] = (uint8_t)sz; sz >>= 8; } }
+
+static inline unsigned long long Lt_get_member_size( const Lzip_trailer data )
+ {
+ unsigned long long tmp = 0;
+ int i; for( i = 19; i >= 12; --i ) { tmp <<= 8; tmp += data[i]; }
+ return tmp;
+ }
+
+static inline void Lt_set_member_size( Lzip_trailer data, unsigned long long sz )
+ { int i; for( i = 12; i <= 19; ++i ) { data[i] = (uint8_t)sz; sz >>= 8; } }
+
+/* check internal consistency */
+static inline bool Lt_verify_consistency( const Lzip_trailer data )
+ {
+ const unsigned crc = Lt_get_data_crc( data );
+ const unsigned long long dsize = Lt_get_data_size( data );
+ const unsigned long long msize = Lt_get_member_size( data );
+ const unsigned long long mlimit = ( 9 * dsize + 7 ) / 8 + min_member_size;
+ const unsigned long long dlimit = 7090 * ( msize - 26 ) - 1;
+ if( ( crc == 0 ) != ( dsize == 0 ) ) return false;
+ if( msize < min_member_size ) return false;
+ if( mlimit > dsize && msize > mlimit ) return false;
+ if( dlimit > msize && dsize > dlimit ) return false;
+ return true;
+ }
+
+
+static inline void set_retval( int * retval, const int new_val )
+ { if( *retval < new_val ) *retval = new_val; }
+
+static const char * const bad_magic_msg = "Bad magic number (file not in lzip format).";
+static const char * const bad_dict_msg = "Invalid dictionary size in member header.";
+static const char * const corrupt_mm_msg = "Corrupt header in multimember file.";
+static const char * const trailing_msg = "Trailing data not allowed.";
+static const char * const mem_msg = "Not enough memory.";
+
+/* defined in decoder.c */
+int readblock( const int fd, uint8_t * const buf, const int size );
+int writeblock( const int fd, const uint8_t * const buf, const int size );
+
+/* defined in list.c */
+int list_files( const char * const filenames[], const int num_filenames,
+ const bool ignore_trailing, const bool loose_trailing );
+
+/* defined in main.c */
+struct stat;
+struct Pretty_print;
+extern int verbosity;
+void * resize_buffer( void * buf, const unsigned min_size );
+void Pp_show_msg( struct Pretty_print * const pp, const char * const msg );
+const char * bad_version( const unsigned version );
+const char * format_ds( const unsigned dictionary_size );
+void show_header( const unsigned dictionary_size );
+int open_instream( const char * const name, struct stat * const in_statsp,
+ const bool one_to_one, const bool reg_only );
+void cleanup_and_fail( const int retval );
+void show_error( const char * const msg, const int errcode, const bool help );
+void show_file_error( const char * const filename, const char * const msg,
+ const int errcode );
+void internal_error( const char * const msg );
+struct Matchfinder_base;
+void show_cprogress( const unsigned long long cfile_size,
+ const unsigned long long partial_size,
+ const struct Matchfinder_base * const m,
+ struct Pretty_print * const p );
+struct Range_decoder;
+void show_dprogress( const unsigned long long cfile_size,
+ const unsigned long long partial_size,
+ const struct Range_decoder * const d,
+ struct Pretty_print * const p );
diff --git a/lzip_index.c b/lzip_index.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..5db5022
--- /dev/null
+++ b/lzip_index.c
@@ -0,0 +1,292 @@
+/* Clzip - LZMA lossless data compressor
+ Copyright (C) 2010-2021 Antonio Diaz Diaz.
+
+ This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ the Free Software Foundation, either version 2 of the License, or
+ (at your option) any later version.
+
+ This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
+ GNU General Public License for more details.
+
+ You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+*/
+
+#define _FILE_OFFSET_BITS 64
+
+#include <errno.h>
+#include <stdbool.h>
+#include <stdint.h>
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+
+#include "lzip.h"
+#include "lzip_index.h"
+
+
+static int seek_read( const int fd, uint8_t * const buf, const int size,
+ const long long pos )
+ {
+ if( lseek( fd, pos, SEEK_SET ) == pos )
+ return readblock( fd, buf, size );
+ return 0;
+ }
+
+
+static bool add_error( struct Lzip_index * const li, const char * const msg )
+ {
+ const int len = strlen( msg );
+ void * tmp = resize_buffer( li->error, li->error_size + len + 1 );
+ if( !tmp ) return false;
+ li->error = (char *)tmp;
+ strncpy( li->error + li->error_size, msg, len + 1 );
+ li->error_size += len;
+ return true;
+ }
+
+
+static bool push_back_member( struct Lzip_index * const li,
+ const long long dp, const long long ds,
+ const long long mp, const long long ms,
+ const unsigned dict_size )
+ {
+ struct Member * p;
+ void * tmp = resize_buffer( li->member_vector,
+ ( li->members + 1 ) * sizeof li->member_vector[0] );
+ if( !tmp ) { add_error( li, mem_msg ); li->retval = 1; return false; }
+ li->member_vector = (struct Member *)tmp;
+ p = &(li->member_vector[li->members]);
+ init_member( p, dp, ds, mp, ms, dict_size );
+ ++li->members;
+ return true;
+ }
+
+
+static void Li_free_member_vector( struct Lzip_index * const li )
+ {
+ if( li->member_vector )
+ { free( li->member_vector ); li->member_vector = 0; }
+ li->members = 0;
+ }
+
+
+static void Li_reverse_member_vector( struct Lzip_index * const li )
+ {
+ struct Member tmp;
+ long i;
+ for( i = 0; i < li->members / 2; ++i )
+ {
+ tmp = li->member_vector[i];
+ li->member_vector[i] = li->member_vector[li->members-i-1];
+ li->member_vector[li->members-i-1] = tmp;
+ }
+ }
+
+
+static bool Li_check_header_error( struct Lzip_index * const li,
+ const Lzip_header header )
+ {
+ if( !Lh_verify_magic( header ) )
+ { add_error( li, bad_magic_msg ); li->retval = 2; return true; }
+ if( !Lh_verify_version( header ) )
+ { add_error( li, bad_version( Lh_version( header ) ) ); li->retval = 2;
+ return true; }
+ if( !isvalid_ds( Lh_get_dictionary_size( header ) ) )
+ { add_error( li, bad_dict_msg ); li->retval = 2; return true; }
+ return false;
+ }
+
+static void Li_set_errno_error( struct Lzip_index * const li,
+ const char * const msg )
+ {
+ add_error( li, msg ); add_error( li, strerror( errno ) );
+ li->retval = 1;
+ }
+
+static void Li_set_num_error( struct Lzip_index * const li,
+ const char * const msg, unsigned long long num )
+ {
+ char buf[80];
+ snprintf( buf, sizeof buf, "%s%llu", msg, num );
+ add_error( li, buf );
+ li->retval = 2;
+ }
+
+
+static bool Li_read_header( struct Lzip_index * const li, const int fd,
+ Lzip_header header, const long long pos )
+ {
+ if( seek_read( fd, header, Lh_size, pos ) != Lh_size )
+ { Li_set_errno_error( li, "Error reading member header: " ); return false; }
+ return true;
+ }
+
+
+/* If successful, push last member and set pos to member header. */
+static bool Li_skip_trailing_data( struct Lzip_index * const li, const int fd,
+ unsigned long long * const pos,
+ const bool ignore_trailing,
+ const bool loose_trailing )
+ {
+ enum { block_size = 16384,
+ buffer_size = block_size + Lt_size - 1 + Lh_size };
+ uint8_t buffer[buffer_size];
+ int bsize = *pos % block_size; /* total bytes in buffer */
+ int search_size, rd_size;
+ unsigned long long ipos;
+ int i;
+ if( *pos < min_member_size ) return false;
+ if( bsize <= buffer_size - block_size ) bsize += block_size;
+ search_size = bsize; /* bytes to search for trailer */
+ rd_size = bsize; /* bytes to read from file */
+ ipos = *pos - rd_size; /* aligned to block_size */
+
+ while( true )
+ {
+ const uint8_t max_msb = ( ipos + search_size ) >> 56;
+ if( seek_read( fd, buffer, rd_size, ipos ) != rd_size )
+ { Li_set_errno_error( li, "Error seeking member trailer: " );
+ return false; }
+ for( i = search_size; i >= Lt_size; --i )
+ if( buffer[i-1] <= max_msb ) /* most significant byte of member_size */
+ {
+ Lzip_header header;
+ const Lzip_header * header2;
+ const Lzip_trailer * const trailer =
+ (const Lzip_trailer *)( buffer + i - Lt_size );
+ const unsigned long long member_size = Lt_get_member_size( *trailer );
+ unsigned dictionary_size;
+ bool full_h2;
+ if( member_size == 0 ) /* skip trailing zeros */
+ { while( i > Lt_size && buffer[i-9] == 0 ) --i; continue; }
+ if( member_size > ipos + i || !Lt_verify_consistency( *trailer ) )
+ continue;
+ if( !Li_read_header( li, fd, header, ipos + i - member_size ) )
+ return false;
+ if( !Lh_verify( header ) ) continue;
+ header2 = (const Lzip_header *)( buffer + i );
+ full_h2 = bsize - i >= Lh_size;
+ if( Lh_verify_prefix( *header2, bsize - i ) ) /* last member */
+ {
+ if( !full_h2 ) add_error( li, "Last member in input file is truncated." );
+ else if( !Li_check_header_error( li, *header2 ) )
+ add_error( li, "Last member in input file is truncated or corrupt." );
+ li->retval = 2; return false;
+ }
+ if( !loose_trailing && full_h2 && Lh_verify_corrupt( *header2 ) )
+ { add_error( li, corrupt_mm_msg ); li->retval = 2; return false; }
+ if( !ignore_trailing )
+ { add_error( li, trailing_msg ); li->retval = 2; return false; }
+ *pos = ipos + i - member_size;
+ dictionary_size = Lh_get_dictionary_size( header );
+ if( li->dictionary_size < dictionary_size )
+ li->dictionary_size = dictionary_size;
+ return push_back_member( li, 0, Lt_get_data_size( *trailer ), *pos,
+ member_size, dictionary_size );
+ }
+ if( ipos == 0 )
+ { Li_set_num_error( li, "Bad trailer at pos ", *pos - Lt_size );
+ return false; }
+ bsize = buffer_size;
+ search_size = bsize - Lh_size;
+ rd_size = block_size;
+ ipos -= rd_size;
+ memcpy( buffer + rd_size, buffer, buffer_size - rd_size );
+ }
+ }
+
+
+bool Li_init( struct Lzip_index * const li, const int infd,
+ const bool ignore_trailing, const bool loose_trailing )
+ {
+ Lzip_header header;
+ unsigned long long pos;
+ long i;
+ li->member_vector = 0;
+ li->error = 0;
+ li->insize = lseek( infd, 0, SEEK_END );
+ li->members = 0;
+ li->error_size = 0;
+ li->retval = 0;
+ li->dictionary_size = 0;
+ if( li->insize < 0 )
+ { Li_set_errno_error( li, "Input file is not seekable: " ); return false; }
+ if( li->insize < min_member_size )
+ { add_error( li, "Input file is too short." ); li->retval = 2;
+ return false; }
+ if( li->insize > INT64_MAX )
+ { add_error( li, "Input file is too long (2^63 bytes or more)." );
+ li->retval = 2; return false; }
+
+ if( !Li_read_header( li, infd, header, 0 ) ) return false;
+ if( Li_check_header_error( li, header ) ) return false;
+
+ pos = li->insize; /* always points to a header or to EOF */
+ while( pos >= min_member_size )
+ {
+ Lzip_trailer trailer;
+ unsigned long long member_size;
+ unsigned dictionary_size;
+ if( seek_read( infd, trailer, Lt_size, pos - Lt_size ) != Lt_size )
+ { Li_set_errno_error( li, "Error reading member trailer: " ); break; }
+ member_size = Lt_get_member_size( trailer );
+ if( member_size > pos || !Lt_verify_consistency( trailer ) )
+ { /* bad trailer */
+ if( li->members <= 0 )
+ { if( Li_skip_trailing_data( li, infd, &pos, ignore_trailing,
+ loose_trailing ) ) continue; else return false; }
+ Li_set_num_error( li, "Bad trailer at pos ", pos - Lt_size );
+ break;
+ }
+ if( !Li_read_header( li, infd, header, pos - member_size ) ) break;
+ if( !Lh_verify( header ) ) /* bad header */
+ {
+ if( li->members <= 0 )
+ { if( Li_skip_trailing_data( li, infd, &pos, ignore_trailing,
+ loose_trailing ) ) continue; else return false; }
+ Li_set_num_error( li, "Bad header at pos ", pos - member_size );
+ break;
+ }
+ pos -= member_size;
+ dictionary_size = Lh_get_dictionary_size( header );
+ if( li->dictionary_size < dictionary_size )
+ li->dictionary_size = dictionary_size;
+ if( !push_back_member( li, 0, Lt_get_data_size( trailer ), pos,
+ member_size, dictionary_size ) )
+ return false;
+ }
+ if( pos != 0 || li->members <= 0 )
+ {
+ Li_free_member_vector( li );
+ if( li->retval == 0 )
+ { add_error( li, "Can't create file index." ); li->retval = 2; }
+ return false;
+ }
+ Li_reverse_member_vector( li );
+ for( i = 0; ; ++i )
+ {
+ const long long end = block_end( li->member_vector[i].dblock );
+ if( end < 0 || end > INT64_MAX )
+ {
+ Li_free_member_vector( li );
+ add_error( li, "Data in input file is too long (2^63 bytes or more)." );
+ li->retval = 2; return false;
+ }
+ if( i + 1 >= li->members ) break;
+ li->member_vector[i+1].dblock.pos = end;
+ }
+ return true;
+ }
+
+
+void Li_free( struct Lzip_index * const li )
+ {
+ Li_free_member_vector( li );
+ if( li->error ) { free( li->error ); li->error = 0; }
+ li->error_size = 0;
+ }
diff --git a/lzip_index.h b/lzip_index.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..d7db038
--- /dev/null
+++ b/lzip_index.h
@@ -0,0 +1,91 @@
+/* Clzip - LZMA lossless data compressor
+ Copyright (C) 2010-2021 Antonio Diaz Diaz.
+
+ This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ the Free Software Foundation, either version 2 of the License, or
+ (at your option) any later version.
+
+ This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
+ GNU General Public License for more details.
+
+ You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+*/
+
+#ifndef INT64_MAX
+#define INT64_MAX 0x7FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFLL
+#endif
+
+
+struct Block
+ {
+ long long pos, size; /* pos + size <= INT64_MAX */
+ };
+
+static inline void init_block( struct Block * const b,
+ const long long p, const long long s )
+ { b->pos = p; b->size = s; }
+
+static inline long long block_end( const struct Block b )
+ { return b.pos + b.size; }
+
+
+struct Member
+ {
+ struct Block dblock, mblock; /* data block, member block */
+ unsigned dictionary_size;
+ };
+
+static inline void init_member( struct Member * const m,
+ const long long dp, const long long ds,
+ const long long mp, const long long ms,
+ const unsigned dict_size )
+ { init_block( &m->dblock, dp, ds ); init_block( &m->mblock, mp, ms );
+ m->dictionary_size = dict_size; }
+
+struct Lzip_index
+ {
+ struct Member * member_vector;
+ char * error;
+ long long insize;
+ long members;
+ int error_size;
+ int retval;
+ unsigned dictionary_size; /* largest dictionary size in the file */
+ };
+
+bool Li_init( struct Lzip_index * const li, const int infd,
+ const bool ignore_trailing, const bool loose_trailing );
+
+void Li_free( struct Lzip_index * const li );
+
+static inline long long Li_udata_size( const struct Lzip_index * const li )
+ {
+ if( li->members <= 0 ) return 0;
+ return block_end( li->member_vector[li->members-1].dblock );
+ }
+
+static inline long long Li_cdata_size( const struct Lzip_index * const li )
+ {
+ if( li->members <= 0 ) return 0;
+ return block_end( li->member_vector[li->members-1].mblock );
+ }
+
+ /* total size including trailing data (if any) */
+static inline long long Li_file_size( const struct Lzip_index * const li )
+ { if( li->insize >= 0 ) return li->insize; else return 0; }
+
+static inline const struct Block * Li_dblock( const struct Lzip_index * const li,
+ const long i )
+ { return &li->member_vector[i].dblock; }
+
+static inline const struct Block * Li_mblock( const struct Lzip_index * const li,
+ const long i )
+ { return &li->member_vector[i].mblock; }
+
+static inline unsigned Li_dictionary_size( const struct Lzip_index * const li,
+ const long i )
+ { return li->member_vector[i].dictionary_size; }
diff --git a/main.c b/main.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..327ec69
--- /dev/null
+++ b/main.c
@@ -0,0 +1,1144 @@
+/* Clzip - LZMA lossless data compressor
+ Copyright (C) 2010-2021 Antonio Diaz Diaz.
+
+ This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ the Free Software Foundation, either version 2 of the License, or
+ (at your option) any later version.
+
+ This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
+ GNU General Public License for more details.
+
+ You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+*/
+/*
+ Exit status: 0 for a normal exit, 1 for environmental problems
+ (file not found, invalid flags, I/O errors, etc), 2 to indicate a
+ corrupt or invalid input file, 3 for an internal consistency error
+ (eg, bug) which caused clzip to panic.
+*/
+
+#define _FILE_OFFSET_BITS 64
+
+#include <ctype.h>
+#include <errno.h>
+#include <fcntl.h>
+#include <limits.h>
+#include <signal.h>
+#include <stdbool.h>
+#include <stdint.h>
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#include <utime.h>
+#include <sys/stat.h>
+#if defined(__MSVCRT__) || defined(__OS2__) || defined(__DJGPP__)
+#include <io.h>
+#if defined(__MSVCRT__)
+#define fchmod(x,y) 0
+#define fchown(x,y,z) 0
+#define strtoull strtoul
+#define SIGHUP SIGTERM
+#define S_ISSOCK(x) 0
+#ifndef S_IRGRP
+#define S_IRGRP 0
+#define S_IWGRP 0
+#define S_IROTH 0
+#define S_IWOTH 0
+#endif
+#endif
+#if defined(__DJGPP__)
+#define S_ISSOCK(x) 0
+#define S_ISVTX 0
+#endif
+#endif
+
+#include "carg_parser.h"
+#include "lzip.h"
+#include "decoder.h"
+#include "encoder_base.h"
+#include "encoder.h"
+#include "fast_encoder.h"
+
+#ifndef O_BINARY
+#define O_BINARY 0
+#endif
+
+#if CHAR_BIT != 8
+#error "Environments where CHAR_BIT != 8 are not supported."
+#endif
+
+int verbosity = 0;
+
+static const char * const program_name = "clzip";
+static const char * const program_year = "2021";
+static const char * invocation_name = "clzip"; /* default value */
+
+static const struct { const char * from; const char * to; } known_extensions[] = {
+ { ".lz", "" },
+ { ".tlz", ".tar" },
+ { 0, 0 } };
+
+struct Lzma_options
+ {
+ int dictionary_size; /* 4 KiB .. 512 MiB */
+ int match_len_limit; /* 5 .. 273 */
+ };
+
+enum Mode { m_compress, m_decompress, m_list, m_test };
+
+/* Variables used in signal handler context.
+ They are not declared volatile because the handler never returns. */
+static char * output_filename = 0;
+static int outfd = -1;
+static bool delete_output_on_interrupt = false;
+
+
+static void show_help( void )
+ {
+ printf( "Clzip is a C language version of lzip, fully compatible with lzip 1.4 or\n"
+ "newer. As clzip is written in C, it may be easier to integrate in\n"
+ "applications like package managers, embedded devices, or systems lacking a\n"
+ "C++ compiler.\n"
+ "\nLzip is a lossless data compressor with a user interface similar to the one\n"
+ "of gzip or bzip2. Lzip uses a simplified form of the 'Lempel-Ziv-Markov\n"
+ "chain-Algorithm' (LZMA) stream format, chosen to maximize safety and\n"
+ "interoperability. Lzip can compress about as fast as gzip (lzip -0) or\n"
+ "compress most files more than bzip2 (lzip -9). Decompression speed is\n"
+ "intermediate between gzip and bzip2. Lzip is better than gzip and bzip2 from\n"
+ "a data recovery perspective. Lzip has been designed, written, and tested\n"
+ "with great care to replace gzip and bzip2 as the standard general-purpose\n"
+ "compressed format for unix-like systems.\n"
+ "\nUsage: %s [options] [files]\n", invocation_name );
+ printf( "\nOptions:\n"
+ " -h, --help display this help and exit\n"
+ " -V, --version output version information and exit\n"
+ " -a, --trailing-error exit with error status if trailing data\n"
+ " -b, --member-size=<bytes> set member size limit in bytes\n"
+ " -c, --stdout write to standard output, keep input files\n"
+ " -d, --decompress decompress\n"
+ " -f, --force overwrite existing output files\n"
+ " -F, --recompress force re-compression of compressed files\n"
+ " -k, --keep keep (don't delete) input files\n"
+ " -l, --list print (un)compressed file sizes\n"
+ " -m, --match-length=<bytes> set match length limit in bytes [36]\n"
+ " -o, --output=<file> write to <file>, keep input files\n"
+ " -q, --quiet suppress all messages\n"
+ " -s, --dictionary-size=<bytes> set dictionary size limit in bytes [8 MiB]\n"
+ " -S, --volume-size=<bytes> set volume size limit in bytes\n"
+ " -t, --test test compressed file integrity\n"
+ " -v, --verbose be verbose (a 2nd -v gives more)\n"
+ " -0 .. -9 set compression level [default 6]\n"
+ " --fast alias for -0\n"
+ " --best alias for -9\n"
+ " --loose-trailing allow trailing data seeming corrupt header\n"
+ "\nIf no file names are given, or if a file is '-', clzip compresses or\n"
+ "decompresses from standard input to standard output.\n"
+ "Numbers may be followed by a multiplier: k = kB = 10^3 = 1000,\n"
+ "Ki = KiB = 2^10 = 1024, M = 10^6, Mi = 2^20, G = 10^9, Gi = 2^30, etc...\n"
+ "Dictionary sizes 12 to 29 are interpreted as powers of two, meaning 2^12\n"
+ "to 2^29 bytes.\n"
+ "\nThe bidimensional parameter space of LZMA can't be mapped to a linear\n"
+ "scale optimal for all files. If your files are large, very repetitive,\n"
+ "etc, you may need to use the options --dictionary-size and --match-length\n"
+ "directly to achieve optimal performance.\n"
+ "\nTo extract all the files from archive 'foo.tar.lz', use the commands\n"
+ "'tar -xf foo.tar.lz' or 'clzip -cd foo.tar.lz | tar -xf -'.\n"
+ "\nExit status: 0 for a normal exit, 1 for environmental problems (file\n"
+ "not found, invalid flags, I/O errors, etc), 2 to indicate a corrupt or\n"
+ "invalid input file, 3 for an internal consistency error (eg, bug) which\n"
+ "caused clzip to panic.\n"
+ "\nThe ideas embodied in clzip are due to (at least) the following people:\n"
+ "Abraham Lempel and Jacob Ziv (for the LZ algorithm), Andrey Markov (for the\n"
+ "definition of Markov chains), G.N.N. Martin (for the definition of range\n"
+ "encoding), Igor Pavlov (for putting all the above together in LZMA), and\n"
+ "Julian Seward (for bzip2's CLI).\n"
+ "\nReport bugs to lzip-bug@nongnu.org\n"
+ "Clzip home page: http://www.nongnu.org/lzip/clzip.html\n" );
+ }
+
+
+static void show_version( void )
+ {
+ printf( "%s %s\n", program_name, PROGVERSION );
+ printf( "Copyright (C) %s Antonio Diaz Diaz.\n", program_year );
+ printf( "License GPLv2+: GNU GPL version 2 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>\n"
+ "This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.\n"
+ "There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.\n" );
+ }
+
+
+/* assure at least a minimum size for buffer 'buf' */
+void * resize_buffer( void * buf, const unsigned min_size )
+ {
+ if( buf ) buf = realloc( buf, min_size );
+ else buf = malloc( min_size );
+ if( !buf ) { show_error( mem_msg, 0, false ); cleanup_and_fail( 1 ); }
+ return buf;
+ }
+
+
+struct Pretty_print
+ {
+ const char * name;
+ char * padded_name;
+ const char * stdin_name;
+ unsigned longest_name;
+ bool first_post;
+ };
+
+static void Pp_init( struct Pretty_print * const pp,
+ const char * const filenames[], const int num_filenames )
+ {
+ unsigned stdin_name_len;
+ int i;
+ pp->name = 0;
+ pp->padded_name = 0;
+ pp->stdin_name = "(stdin)";
+ pp->longest_name = 0;
+ pp->first_post = false;
+
+ if( verbosity <= 0 ) return;
+ stdin_name_len = strlen( pp->stdin_name );
+ for( i = 0; i < num_filenames; ++i )
+ {
+ const char * const s = filenames[i];
+ const unsigned len = (strcmp( s, "-" ) == 0) ? stdin_name_len : strlen( s );
+ if( pp->longest_name < len ) pp->longest_name = len;
+ }
+ if( pp->longest_name == 0 ) pp->longest_name = stdin_name_len;
+ }
+
+static void Pp_set_name( struct Pretty_print * const pp,
+ const char * const filename )
+ {
+ unsigned name_len, padded_name_len, i = 0;
+
+ if( filename && filename[0] && strcmp( filename, "-" ) != 0 )
+ pp->name = filename;
+ else pp->name = pp->stdin_name;
+ name_len = strlen( pp->name );
+ padded_name_len = max( name_len, pp->longest_name ) + 4;
+ pp->padded_name = resize_buffer( pp->padded_name, padded_name_len + 1 );
+ while( i < 2 ) pp->padded_name[i++] = ' ';
+ while( i < name_len + 2 ) { pp->padded_name[i] = pp->name[i-2]; ++i; }
+ pp->padded_name[i++] = ':';
+ while( i < padded_name_len ) pp->padded_name[i++] = ' ';
+ pp->padded_name[i] = 0;
+ pp->first_post = true;
+ }
+
+static void Pp_reset( struct Pretty_print * const pp )
+ { if( pp->name && pp->name[0] ) pp->first_post = true; }
+
+void Pp_show_msg( struct Pretty_print * const pp, const char * const msg )
+ {
+ if( verbosity >= 0 )
+ {
+ if( pp->first_post )
+ {
+ pp->first_post = false;
+ fputs( pp->padded_name, stderr );
+ if( !msg ) fflush( stderr );
+ }
+ if( msg ) fprintf( stderr, "%s\n", msg );
+ }
+ }
+
+
+const char * bad_version( const unsigned version )
+ {
+ static char buf[80];
+ snprintf( buf, sizeof buf, "Version %u member format not supported.",
+ version );
+ return buf;
+ }
+
+
+const char * format_ds( const unsigned dictionary_size )
+ {
+ enum { bufsize = 16, factor = 1024 };
+ static char buf[bufsize];
+ const char * const prefix[8] =
+ { "Ki", "Mi", "Gi", "Ti", "Pi", "Ei", "Zi", "Yi" };
+ const char * p = "";
+ const char * np = " ";
+ unsigned num = dictionary_size;
+ bool exact = ( num % factor == 0 );
+
+ int i; for( i = 0; i < 8 && ( num > 9999 || ( exact && num >= factor ) ); ++i )
+ { num /= factor; if( num % factor != 0 ) exact = false;
+ p = prefix[i]; np = ""; }
+ snprintf( buf, bufsize, "%s%4u %sB", np, num, p );
+ return buf;
+ }
+
+
+void show_header( const unsigned dictionary_size )
+ {
+ fprintf( stderr, "dict %s, ", format_ds( dictionary_size ) );
+ }
+
+
+static unsigned long long getnum( const char * const ptr,
+ const unsigned long long llimit,
+ const unsigned long long ulimit )
+ {
+ unsigned long long result;
+ char * tail;
+ errno = 0;
+ result = strtoull( ptr, &tail, 0 );
+ if( tail == ptr )
+ {
+ show_error( "Bad or missing numerical argument.", 0, true );
+ exit( 1 );
+ }
+
+ if( !errno && tail[0] )
+ {
+ const unsigned factor = ( tail[1] == 'i' ) ? 1024 : 1000;
+ int exponent = 0; /* 0 = bad multiplier */
+ int i;
+ switch( tail[0] )
+ {
+ case 'Y': exponent = 8; break;
+ case 'Z': exponent = 7; break;
+ case 'E': exponent = 6; break;
+ case 'P': exponent = 5; break;
+ case 'T': exponent = 4; break;
+ case 'G': exponent = 3; break;
+ case 'M': exponent = 2; break;
+ case 'K': if( factor == 1024 ) exponent = 1; break;
+ case 'k': if( factor == 1000 ) exponent = 1; break;
+ }
+ if( exponent <= 0 )
+ {
+ show_error( "Bad multiplier in numerical argument.", 0, true );
+ exit( 1 );
+ }
+ for( i = 0; i < exponent; ++i )
+ {
+ if( ulimit / factor >= result ) result *= factor;
+ else { errno = ERANGE; break; }
+ }
+ }
+ if( !errno && ( result < llimit || result > ulimit ) ) errno = ERANGE;
+ if( errno )
+ {
+ show_error( "Numerical argument out of limits.", 0, false );
+ exit( 1 );
+ }
+ return result;
+ }
+
+
+static int get_dict_size( const char * const arg )
+ {
+ char * tail;
+ const long bits = strtol( arg, &tail, 0 );
+ if( bits >= min_dictionary_bits &&
+ bits <= max_dictionary_bits && *tail == 0 )
+ return 1 << bits;
+ return getnum( arg, min_dictionary_size, max_dictionary_size );
+ }
+
+
+static void set_mode( enum Mode * const program_modep, const enum Mode new_mode )
+ {
+ if( *program_modep != m_compress && *program_modep != new_mode )
+ {
+ show_error( "Only one operation can be specified.", 0, true );
+ exit( 1 );
+ }
+ *program_modep = new_mode;
+ }
+
+
+static int extension_index( const char * const name )
+ {
+ int eindex;
+ for( eindex = 0; known_extensions[eindex].from; ++eindex )
+ {
+ const char * const ext = known_extensions[eindex].from;
+ const unsigned name_len = strlen( name );
+ const unsigned ext_len = strlen( ext );
+ if( name_len > ext_len &&
+ strncmp( name + name_len - ext_len, ext, ext_len ) == 0 )
+ return eindex;
+ }
+ return -1;
+ }
+
+
+static void set_c_outname( const char * const name, const bool filenames_given,
+ const bool force_ext, const bool multifile )
+ {
+ /* zupdate < 1.9 depends on lzip adding the extension '.lz' to name when
+ reading from standard input. */
+ output_filename = resize_buffer( output_filename, strlen( name ) + 5 +
+ strlen( known_extensions[0].from ) + 1 );
+ strcpy( output_filename, name );
+ if( multifile ) strcat( output_filename, "00001" );
+ if( force_ext || multifile ||
+ ( !filenames_given && extension_index( output_filename ) < 0 ) )
+ strcat( output_filename, known_extensions[0].from );
+ }
+
+
+static void set_d_outname( const char * const name, const int eindex )
+ {
+ const unsigned name_len = strlen( name );
+ if( eindex >= 0 )
+ {
+ const char * const from = known_extensions[eindex].from;
+ const unsigned from_len = strlen( from );
+ if( name_len > from_len )
+ {
+ output_filename = resize_buffer( output_filename, name_len +
+ strlen( known_extensions[eindex].to ) + 1 );
+ strcpy( output_filename, name );
+ strcpy( output_filename + name_len - from_len, known_extensions[eindex].to );
+ return;
+ }
+ }
+ output_filename = resize_buffer( output_filename, name_len + 4 + 1 );
+ strcpy( output_filename, name );
+ strcat( output_filename, ".out" );
+ if( verbosity >= 1 )
+ fprintf( stderr, "%s: Can't guess original name for '%s' -- using '%s'\n",
+ program_name, name, output_filename );
+ }
+
+
+int open_instream( const char * const name, struct stat * const in_statsp,
+ const bool one_to_one, const bool reg_only )
+ {
+ int infd = open( name, O_RDONLY | O_BINARY );
+ if( infd < 0 )
+ show_file_error( name, "Can't open input file", errno );
+ else
+ {
+ const int i = fstat( infd, in_statsp );
+ const mode_t mode = in_statsp->st_mode;
+ const bool can_read = ( i == 0 && !reg_only &&
+ ( S_ISBLK( mode ) || S_ISCHR( mode ) ||
+ S_ISFIFO( mode ) || S_ISSOCK( mode ) ) );
+ if( i != 0 || ( !S_ISREG( mode ) && ( !can_read || one_to_one ) ) )
+ {
+ if( verbosity >= 0 )
+ fprintf( stderr, "%s: Input file '%s' is not a regular file%s.\n",
+ program_name, name, ( can_read && one_to_one ) ?
+ ",\n and neither '-c' nor '-o' were specified" : "" );
+ close( infd );
+ infd = -1;
+ }
+ }
+ return infd;
+ }
+
+
+static int open_instream2( const char * const name, struct stat * const in_statsp,
+ const enum Mode program_mode, const int eindex,
+ const bool one_to_one, const bool recompress )
+ {
+ if( program_mode == m_compress && !recompress && eindex >= 0 )
+ {
+ if( verbosity >= 0 )
+ fprintf( stderr, "%s: Input file '%s' already has '%s' suffix.\n",
+ program_name, name, known_extensions[eindex].from );
+ return -1;
+ }
+ return open_instream( name, in_statsp, one_to_one, false );
+ }
+
+
+static bool open_outstream( const bool force, const bool protect )
+ {
+ const mode_t usr_rw = S_IRUSR | S_IWUSR;
+ const mode_t all_rw = usr_rw | S_IRGRP | S_IWGRP | S_IROTH | S_IWOTH;
+ const mode_t outfd_mode = protect ? usr_rw : all_rw;
+ int flags = O_CREAT | O_WRONLY | O_BINARY;
+ if( force ) flags |= O_TRUNC; else flags |= O_EXCL;
+
+ outfd = open( output_filename, flags, outfd_mode );
+ if( outfd >= 0 ) delete_output_on_interrupt = true;
+ else if( verbosity >= 0 )
+ {
+ if( errno == EEXIST )
+ fprintf( stderr, "%s: Output file '%s' already exists, skipping.\n",
+ program_name, output_filename );
+ else
+ fprintf( stderr, "%s: Can't create output file '%s': %s\n",
+ program_name, output_filename, strerror( errno ) );
+ }
+ return ( outfd >= 0 );
+ }
+
+
+static void set_signals( void (*action)(int) )
+ {
+ signal( SIGHUP, action );
+ signal( SIGINT, action );
+ signal( SIGTERM, action );
+ }
+
+
+void cleanup_and_fail( const int retval )
+ {
+ set_signals( SIG_IGN ); /* ignore signals */
+ if( delete_output_on_interrupt )
+ {
+ delete_output_on_interrupt = false;
+ if( verbosity >= 0 )
+ fprintf( stderr, "%s: Deleting output file '%s', if it exists.\n",
+ program_name, output_filename );
+ if( outfd >= 0 ) { close( outfd ); outfd = -1; }
+ if( remove( output_filename ) != 0 && errno != ENOENT )
+ show_error( "WARNING: deletion of output file (apparently) failed.", 0, false );
+ }
+ exit( retval );
+ }
+
+
+static void signal_handler( int sig )
+ {
+ if( sig ) {} /* keep compiler happy */
+ show_error( "Control-C or similar caught, quitting.", 0, false );
+ cleanup_and_fail( 1 );
+ }
+
+
+static bool check_tty_in( const char * const input_filename, const int infd,
+ const enum Mode program_mode, int * const retval )
+ {
+ if( ( program_mode == m_decompress || program_mode == m_test ) &&
+ isatty( infd ) ) /* for example /dev/tty */
+ { show_file_error( input_filename,
+ "I won't read compressed data from a terminal.", 0 );
+ close( infd ); set_retval( retval, 1 );
+ if( program_mode != m_test ) cleanup_and_fail( *retval );
+ return false; }
+ return true;
+ }
+
+static bool check_tty_out( const enum Mode program_mode )
+ {
+ if( program_mode == m_compress && isatty( outfd ) )
+ { show_file_error( output_filename[0] ?
+ output_filename : "(stdout)",
+ "I won't write compressed data to a terminal.", 0 );
+ return false; }
+ return true;
+ }
+
+
+/* Set permissions, owner, and times. */
+static void close_and_set_permissions( const struct stat * const in_statsp )
+ {
+ bool warning = false;
+ if( in_statsp )
+ {
+ const mode_t mode = in_statsp->st_mode;
+ /* fchown will in many cases return with EPERM, which can be safely ignored. */
+ if( fchown( outfd, in_statsp->st_uid, in_statsp->st_gid ) == 0 )
+ { if( fchmod( outfd, mode ) != 0 ) warning = true; }
+ else
+ if( errno != EPERM ||
+ fchmod( outfd, mode & ~( S_ISUID | S_ISGID | S_ISVTX ) ) != 0 )
+ warning = true;
+ }
+ if( close( outfd ) != 0 )
+ {
+ show_error( "Error closing output file", errno, false );
+ cleanup_and_fail( 1 );
+ }
+ outfd = -1;
+ delete_output_on_interrupt = false;
+ if( in_statsp )
+ {
+ struct utimbuf t;
+ t.actime = in_statsp->st_atime;
+ t.modtime = in_statsp->st_mtime;
+ if( utime( output_filename, &t ) != 0 ) warning = true;
+ }
+ if( warning && verbosity >= 1 )
+ show_error( "Can't change output file attributes.", 0, false );
+ }
+
+
+static bool next_filename( void )
+ {
+ const unsigned name_len = strlen( output_filename );
+ const unsigned ext_len = strlen( known_extensions[0].from );
+ int i, j;
+ if( name_len >= ext_len + 5 ) /* "*00001.lz" */
+ for( i = name_len - ext_len - 1, j = 0; j < 5; --i, ++j )
+ {
+ if( output_filename[i] < '9' ) { ++output_filename[i]; return true; }
+ else output_filename[i] = '0';
+ }
+ return false;
+ }
+
+
+struct Poly_encoder
+ {
+ struct LZ_encoder_base * eb;
+ struct LZ_encoder * e;
+ struct FLZ_encoder * fe;
+ };
+
+
+static int compress( const unsigned long long cfile_size,
+ const unsigned long long member_size,
+ const unsigned long long volume_size, const int infd,
+ const struct Lzma_options * const encoder_options,
+ struct Pretty_print * const pp,
+ const struct stat * const in_statsp, const bool zero )
+ {
+ unsigned long long in_size = 0, out_size = 0, partial_volume_size = 0;
+ int retval = 0;
+ struct Poly_encoder encoder = { 0, 0, 0 }; /* polymorphic encoder */
+ if( verbosity >= 1 ) Pp_show_msg( pp, 0 );
+
+ {
+ bool error = false;
+ if( zero )
+ {
+ encoder.fe = (struct FLZ_encoder *)malloc( sizeof *encoder.fe );
+ if( !encoder.fe || !FLZe_init( encoder.fe, infd, outfd ) ) error = true;
+ else encoder.eb = &encoder.fe->eb;
+ }
+ else
+ {
+ Lzip_header header;
+ if( Lh_set_dictionary_size( header, encoder_options->dictionary_size ) &&
+ encoder_options->match_len_limit >= min_match_len_limit &&
+ encoder_options->match_len_limit <= max_match_len )
+ encoder.e = (struct LZ_encoder *)malloc( sizeof *encoder.e );
+ else internal_error( "invalid argument to encoder." );
+ if( !encoder.e || !LZe_init( encoder.e, Lh_get_dictionary_size( header ),
+ encoder_options->match_len_limit, infd, outfd ) )
+ error = true;
+ else encoder.eb = &encoder.e->eb;
+ }
+ if( error )
+ {
+ Pp_show_msg( pp, "Not enough memory. Try a smaller dictionary size." );
+ return 1;
+ }
+ }
+
+ while( true ) /* encode one member per iteration */
+ {
+ const unsigned long long size = ( volume_size > 0 ) ?
+ min( member_size, volume_size - partial_volume_size ) : member_size;
+ show_cprogress( cfile_size, in_size, &encoder.eb->mb, pp ); /* init */
+ if( ( zero && !FLZe_encode_member( encoder.fe, size ) ) ||
+ ( !zero && !LZe_encode_member( encoder.e, size ) ) )
+ { Pp_show_msg( pp, "Encoder error." ); retval = 1; break; }
+ in_size += Mb_data_position( &encoder.eb->mb );
+ out_size += Re_member_position( &encoder.eb->renc );
+ if( Mb_data_finished( &encoder.eb->mb ) ) break;
+ if( volume_size > 0 )
+ {
+ partial_volume_size += Re_member_position( &encoder.eb->renc );
+ if( partial_volume_size >= volume_size - min_dictionary_size )
+ {
+ partial_volume_size = 0;
+ if( delete_output_on_interrupt )
+ {
+ close_and_set_permissions( in_statsp );
+ if( !next_filename() )
+ { Pp_show_msg( pp, "Too many volume files." ); retval = 1; break; }
+ if( !open_outstream( true, in_statsp ) ) { retval = 1; break; }
+ }
+ }
+ }
+ if( zero ) FLZe_reset( encoder.fe ); else LZe_reset( encoder.e );
+ }
+
+ if( retval == 0 && verbosity >= 1 )
+ {
+ if( in_size == 0 || out_size == 0 )
+ fputs( " no data compressed.\n", stderr );
+ else
+ fprintf( stderr, "%6.3f:1, %5.2f%% ratio, %5.2f%% saved, "
+ "%llu in, %llu out.\n",
+ (double)in_size / out_size,
+ ( 100.0 * out_size ) / in_size,
+ 100.0 - ( ( 100.0 * out_size ) / in_size ),
+ in_size, out_size );
+ }
+ LZeb_free( encoder.eb );
+ if( zero ) free( encoder.fe ); else free( encoder.e );
+ return retval;
+ }
+
+
+static unsigned char xdigit( const unsigned value )
+ {
+ if( value <= 9 ) return '0' + value;
+ if( value <= 15 ) return 'A' + value - 10;
+ return 0;
+ }
+
+
+static bool show_trailing_data( const uint8_t * const data, const int size,
+ struct Pretty_print * const pp, const bool all,
+ const int ignore_trailing ) /* -1 = show */
+ {
+ if( verbosity >= 4 || ignore_trailing <= 0 )
+ {
+ int i;
+ char buf[80];
+ unsigned len = max( 0, snprintf( buf, sizeof buf, "%strailing data = ",
+ all ? "" : "first bytes of " ) );
+ for( i = 0; i < size && len + 2 < sizeof buf; ++i )
+ {
+ buf[len++] = xdigit( data[i] >> 4 );
+ buf[len++] = xdigit( data[i] & 0x0F );
+ buf[len++] = ' ';
+ }
+ if( len < sizeof buf ) buf[len++] = '\'';
+ for( i = 0; i < size && len < sizeof buf; ++i )
+ { if( isprint( data[i] ) ) buf[len++] = data[i]; else buf[len++] = '.'; }
+ if( len < sizeof buf ) buf[len++] = '\'';
+ if( len < sizeof buf ) buf[len] = 0; else buf[sizeof buf - 1] = 0;
+ Pp_show_msg( pp, buf );
+ if( ignore_trailing == 0 ) show_file_error( pp->name, trailing_msg, 0 );
+ }
+ return ( ignore_trailing > 0 );
+ }
+
+
+static int decompress( const unsigned long long cfile_size, const int infd,
+ struct Pretty_print * const pp, const bool ignore_trailing,
+ const bool loose_trailing, const bool testing )
+ {
+ unsigned long long partial_file_pos = 0;
+ struct Range_decoder rdec;
+ int retval = 0;
+ bool first_member;
+ if( !Rd_init( &rdec, infd ) )
+ { show_error( mem_msg, 0, false ); cleanup_and_fail( 1 ); }
+
+ for( first_member = true; ; first_member = false )
+ {
+ int result, size;
+ unsigned dictionary_size;
+ Lzip_header header;
+ struct LZ_decoder decoder;
+ Rd_reset_member_position( &rdec );
+ size = Rd_read_data( &rdec, header, Lh_size );
+ if( Rd_finished( &rdec ) ) /* End Of File */
+ {
+ if( first_member )
+ { show_file_error( pp->name, "File ends unexpectedly at member header.", 0 );
+ retval = 2; }
+ else if( Lh_verify_prefix( header, size ) )
+ { Pp_show_msg( pp, "Truncated header in multimember file." );
+ show_trailing_data( header, size, pp, true, -1 );
+ retval = 2; }
+ else if( size > 0 && !show_trailing_data( header, size, pp,
+ true, ignore_trailing ) )
+ retval = 2;
+ break;
+ }
+ if( !Lh_verify_magic( header ) )
+ {
+ if( first_member )
+ { show_file_error( pp->name, bad_magic_msg, 0 ); retval = 2; }
+ else if( !loose_trailing && Lh_verify_corrupt( header ) )
+ { Pp_show_msg( pp, corrupt_mm_msg );
+ show_trailing_data( header, size, pp, false, -1 );
+ retval = 2; }
+ else if( !show_trailing_data( header, size, pp, false, ignore_trailing ) )
+ retval = 2;
+ break;
+ }
+ if( !Lh_verify_version( header ) )
+ { Pp_show_msg( pp, bad_version( Lh_version( header ) ) );
+ retval = 2; break; }
+ dictionary_size = Lh_get_dictionary_size( header );
+ if( !isvalid_ds( dictionary_size ) )
+ { Pp_show_msg( pp, bad_dict_msg ); retval = 2; break; }
+
+ if( verbosity >= 2 || ( verbosity == 1 && first_member ) )
+ Pp_show_msg( pp, 0 );
+
+ if( !LZd_init( &decoder, &rdec, dictionary_size, outfd ) )
+ { Pp_show_msg( pp, mem_msg ); retval = 1; break; }
+ show_dprogress( cfile_size, partial_file_pos, &rdec, pp ); /* init */
+ result = LZd_decode_member( &decoder, pp );
+ partial_file_pos += Rd_member_position( &rdec );
+ LZd_free( &decoder );
+ if( result != 0 )
+ {
+ if( verbosity >= 0 && result <= 2 )
+ {
+ Pp_show_msg( pp, 0 );
+ fprintf( stderr, "%s at pos %llu\n", ( result == 2 ) ?
+ "File ends unexpectedly" : "Decoder error",
+ partial_file_pos );
+ }
+ retval = 2; break;
+ }
+ if( verbosity >= 2 )
+ { fputs( testing ? "ok\n" : "done\n", stderr ); Pp_reset( pp ); }
+ }
+ Rd_free( &rdec );
+ if( verbosity == 1 && retval == 0 )
+ fputs( testing ? "ok\n" : "done\n", stderr );
+ return retval;
+ }
+
+
+void show_error( const char * const msg, const int errcode, const bool help )
+ {
+ if( verbosity < 0 ) return;
+ if( msg && msg[0] )
+ fprintf( stderr, "%s: %s%s%s\n", program_name, msg,
+ ( errcode > 0 ) ? ": " : "",
+ ( errcode > 0 ) ? strerror( errcode ) : "" );
+ if( help )
+ fprintf( stderr, "Try '%s --help' for more information.\n",
+ invocation_name );
+ }
+
+
+void show_file_error( const char * const filename, const char * const msg,
+ const int errcode )
+ {
+ if( verbosity >= 0 )
+ fprintf( stderr, "%s: %s: %s%s%s\n", program_name, filename, msg,
+ ( errcode > 0 ) ? ": " : "",
+ ( errcode > 0 ) ? strerror( errcode ) : "" );
+ }
+
+
+void internal_error( const char * const msg )
+ {
+ if( verbosity >= 0 )
+ fprintf( stderr, "%s: internal error: %s\n", program_name, msg );
+ exit( 3 );
+ }
+
+
+void show_cprogress( const unsigned long long cfile_size,
+ const unsigned long long partial_size,
+ const struct Matchfinder_base * const m,
+ struct Pretty_print * const p )
+ {
+ static unsigned long long csize = 0; /* file_size / 100 */
+ static unsigned long long psize = 0;
+ static const struct Matchfinder_base * mb = 0;
+ static struct Pretty_print * pp = 0;
+ static bool enabled = true;
+
+ if( !enabled ) return;
+ if( p ) /* initialize static vars */
+ {
+ if( verbosity < 2 || !isatty( STDERR_FILENO ) ) { enabled = false; return; }
+ csize = cfile_size; psize = partial_size; mb = m; pp = p;
+ }
+ if( mb && pp )
+ {
+ const unsigned long long pos = psize + Mb_data_position( mb );
+ if( csize > 0 )
+ fprintf( stderr, "%4llu%% %.1f MB\r", pos / csize, pos / 1000000.0 );
+ else
+ fprintf( stderr, " %.1f MB\r", pos / 1000000.0 );
+ Pp_reset( pp ); Pp_show_msg( pp, 0 ); /* restore cursor position */
+ }
+ }
+
+
+void show_dprogress( const unsigned long long cfile_size,
+ const unsigned long long partial_size,
+ const struct Range_decoder * const d,
+ struct Pretty_print * const p )
+ {
+ static unsigned long long csize = 0; /* file_size / 100 */
+ static unsigned long long psize = 0;
+ static const struct Range_decoder * rdec = 0;
+ static struct Pretty_print * pp = 0;
+ static int counter = 0;
+ static bool enabled = true;
+
+ if( !enabled ) return;
+ if( p ) /* initialize static vars */
+ {
+ if( verbosity < 2 || !isatty( STDERR_FILENO ) ) { enabled = false; return; }
+ csize = cfile_size; psize = partial_size; rdec = d; pp = p; counter = 0;
+ }
+ if( rdec && pp && --counter <= 0 )
+ {
+ const unsigned long long pos = psize + Rd_member_position( rdec );
+ counter = 7; /* update display every 114688 bytes */
+ if( csize > 0 )
+ fprintf( stderr, "%4llu%% %.1f MB\r", pos / csize, pos / 1000000.0 );
+ else
+ fprintf( stderr, " %.1f MB\r", pos / 1000000.0 );
+ Pp_reset( pp ); Pp_show_msg( pp, 0 ); /* restore cursor position */
+ }
+ }
+
+
+int main( const int argc, const char * const argv[] )
+ {
+ /* Mapping from gzip/bzip2 style 1..9 compression modes
+ to the corresponding LZMA compression modes. */
+ const struct Lzma_options option_mapping[] =
+ {
+ { 1 << 16, 16 }, /* -0 */
+ { 1 << 20, 5 }, /* -1 */
+ { 3 << 19, 6 }, /* -2 */
+ { 1 << 21, 8 }, /* -3 */
+ { 3 << 20, 12 }, /* -4 */
+ { 1 << 22, 20 }, /* -5 */
+ { 1 << 23, 36 }, /* -6 */
+ { 1 << 24, 68 }, /* -7 */
+ { 3 << 23, 132 }, /* -8 */
+ { 1 << 25, 273 } }; /* -9 */
+ struct Lzma_options encoder_options = option_mapping[6]; /* default = "-6" */
+ const unsigned long long max_member_size = 0x0008000000000000ULL; /* 2 PiB */
+ const unsigned long long max_volume_size = 0x4000000000000000ULL; /* 4 EiB */
+ unsigned long long member_size = max_member_size;
+ unsigned long long volume_size = 0;
+ const char * default_output_filename = "";
+ static struct Arg_parser parser; /* static because valgrind complains */
+ static struct Pretty_print pp; /* and memory management in C sucks */
+ static const char ** filenames = 0;
+ int num_filenames = 0;
+ enum Mode program_mode = m_compress;
+ int argind = 0;
+ int failed_tests = 0;
+ int retval = 0;
+ int i;
+ bool filenames_given = false;
+ bool force = false;
+ bool ignore_trailing = true;
+ bool keep_input_files = false;
+ bool loose_trailing = false;
+ bool recompress = false;
+ bool stdin_used = false;
+ bool to_stdout = false;
+ bool zero = false;
+
+ enum { opt_lt = 256 };
+ const struct ap_Option options[] =
+ {
+ { '0', "fast", ap_no },
+ { '1', 0, ap_no },
+ { '2', 0, ap_no },
+ { '3', 0, ap_no },
+ { '4', 0, ap_no },
+ { '5', 0, ap_no },
+ { '6', 0, ap_no },
+ { '7', 0, ap_no },
+ { '8', 0, ap_no },
+ { '9', "best", ap_no },
+ { 'a', "trailing-error", ap_no },
+ { 'b', "member-size", ap_yes },
+ { 'c', "stdout", ap_no },
+ { 'd', "decompress", ap_no },
+ { 'f', "force", ap_no },
+ { 'F', "recompress", ap_no },
+ { 'h', "help", ap_no },
+ { 'k', "keep", ap_no },
+ { 'l', "list", ap_no },
+ { 'm', "match-length", ap_yes },
+ { 'n', "threads", ap_yes },
+ { 'o', "output", ap_yes },
+ { 'q', "quiet", ap_no },
+ { 's', "dictionary-size", ap_yes },
+ { 'S', "volume-size", ap_yes },
+ { 't', "test", ap_no },
+ { 'v', "verbose", ap_no },
+ { 'V', "version", ap_no },
+ { opt_lt, "loose-trailing", ap_no },
+ { 0, 0, ap_no } };
+
+ if( argc > 0 ) invocation_name = argv[0];
+ CRC32_init();
+
+ if( !ap_init( &parser, argc, argv, options, 0 ) )
+ { show_error( mem_msg, 0, false ); return 1; }
+ if( ap_error( &parser ) ) /* bad option */
+ { show_error( ap_error( &parser ), 0, true ); return 1; }
+
+ for( ; argind < ap_arguments( &parser ); ++argind )
+ {
+ const int code = ap_code( &parser, argind );
+ const char * const arg = ap_argument( &parser, argind );
+ if( !code ) break; /* no more options */
+ switch( code )
+ {
+ case '0': case '1': case '2': case '3': case '4':
+ case '5': case '6': case '7': case '8': case '9':
+ zero = ( code == '0' );
+ encoder_options = option_mapping[code-'0']; break;
+ case 'a': ignore_trailing = false; break;
+ case 'b': member_size = getnum( arg, 100000, max_member_size ); break;
+ case 'c': to_stdout = true; break;
+ case 'd': set_mode( &program_mode, m_decompress ); break;
+ case 'f': force = true; break;
+ case 'F': recompress = true; break;
+ case 'h': show_help(); return 0;
+ case 'k': keep_input_files = true; break;
+ case 'l': set_mode( &program_mode, m_list ); break;
+ case 'm': encoder_options.match_len_limit =
+ getnum( arg, min_match_len_limit, max_match_len );
+ zero = false; break;
+ case 'n': break;
+ case 'o': if( strcmp( arg, "-" ) == 0 ) to_stdout = true;
+ else { default_output_filename = arg; } break;
+ case 'q': verbosity = -1; break;
+ case 's': encoder_options.dictionary_size = get_dict_size( arg );
+ zero = false; break;
+ case 'S': volume_size = getnum( arg, 100000, max_volume_size ); break;
+ case 't': set_mode( &program_mode, m_test ); break;
+ case 'v': if( verbosity < 4 ) ++verbosity; break;
+ case 'V': show_version(); return 0;
+ case opt_lt: loose_trailing = true; break;
+ default : internal_error( "uncaught option." );
+ }
+ } /* end process options */
+
+#if defined(__MSVCRT__) || defined(__OS2__) || defined(__DJGPP__)
+ setmode( STDIN_FILENO, O_BINARY );
+ setmode( STDOUT_FILENO, O_BINARY );
+#endif
+
+ num_filenames = max( 1, ap_arguments( &parser ) - argind );
+ filenames = resize_buffer( filenames, num_filenames * sizeof filenames[0] );
+ filenames[0] = "-";
+
+ for( i = 0; argind + i < ap_arguments( &parser ); ++i )
+ {
+ filenames[i] = ap_argument( &parser, argind + i );
+ if( strcmp( filenames[i], "-" ) != 0 ) filenames_given = true;
+ }
+
+ if( program_mode == m_list )
+ return list_files( filenames, num_filenames, ignore_trailing, loose_trailing );
+
+ if( program_mode == m_compress )
+ {
+ if( volume_size > 0 && !to_stdout && default_output_filename[0] &&
+ num_filenames > 1 )
+ { show_error( "Only can compress one file when using '-o' and '-S'.",
+ 0, true ); return 1; }
+ Dis_slots_init();
+ Prob_prices_init();
+ }
+ else volume_size = 0;
+ if( program_mode == m_test ) to_stdout = false; /* apply overrides */
+ if( program_mode == m_test || to_stdout ) default_output_filename = "";
+
+ output_filename = resize_buffer( output_filename, 1 );
+ output_filename[0] = 0;
+ if( to_stdout && program_mode != m_test ) /* check tty only once */
+ { outfd = STDOUT_FILENO; if( !check_tty_out( program_mode ) ) return 1; }
+ else outfd = -1;
+
+ const bool to_file = !to_stdout && program_mode != m_test &&
+ default_output_filename[0];
+ if( !to_stdout && program_mode != m_test && ( filenames_given || to_file ) )
+ set_signals( signal_handler );
+
+ Pp_init( &pp, filenames, num_filenames );
+
+ const bool one_to_one = !to_stdout && program_mode != m_test && !to_file;
+ for( i = 0; i < num_filenames; ++i )
+ {
+ unsigned long long cfile_size;
+ const char * input_filename = "";
+ int infd;
+ int tmp;
+ struct stat in_stats;
+ const struct stat * in_statsp;
+
+ Pp_set_name( &pp, filenames[i] );
+ if( strcmp( filenames[i], "-" ) == 0 )
+ {
+ if( stdin_used ) continue; else stdin_used = true;
+ infd = STDIN_FILENO;
+ if( !check_tty_in( pp.name, infd, program_mode, &retval ) ) continue;
+ if( one_to_one ) { outfd = STDOUT_FILENO; output_filename[0] = 0; }
+ }
+ else
+ {
+ const int eindex = extension_index( input_filename = filenames[i] );
+ infd = open_instream2( input_filename, &in_stats, program_mode,
+ eindex, one_to_one, recompress );
+ if( infd < 0 ) { set_retval( &retval, 1 ); continue; }
+ if( !check_tty_in( pp.name, infd, program_mode, &retval ) ) continue;
+ if( one_to_one ) /* open outfd after verifying infd */
+ {
+ if( program_mode == m_compress )
+ set_c_outname( input_filename, true, true, volume_size > 0 );
+ else set_d_outname( input_filename, eindex );
+ if( !open_outstream( force, true ) )
+ { close( infd ); set_retval( &retval, 1 ); continue; }
+ }
+ }
+
+ if( one_to_one && !check_tty_out( program_mode ) )
+ { set_retval( &retval, 1 ); return retval; } /* don't delete a tty */
+
+ if( to_file && outfd < 0 ) /* open outfd after verifying infd */
+ {
+ if( program_mode == m_compress ) set_c_outname( default_output_filename,
+ filenames_given, false, volume_size > 0 );
+ else
+ { output_filename = resize_buffer( output_filename,
+ strlen( default_output_filename ) + 1 );
+ strcpy( output_filename, default_output_filename ); }
+ if( !open_outstream( force, false ) || !check_tty_out( program_mode ) )
+ return 1; /* check tty only once and don't try to delete a tty */
+ }
+
+ in_statsp = ( input_filename[0] && one_to_one ) ? &in_stats : 0;
+ cfile_size = ( input_filename[0] && S_ISREG( in_stats.st_mode ) ) ?
+ ( in_stats.st_size + 99 ) / 100 : 0;
+ if( program_mode == m_compress )
+ tmp = compress( cfile_size, member_size, volume_size, infd,
+ &encoder_options, &pp, in_statsp, zero );
+ else
+ tmp = decompress( cfile_size, infd, &pp, ignore_trailing,
+ loose_trailing, program_mode == m_test );
+ if( close( infd ) != 0 )
+ { show_file_error( pp.name, "Error closing input file", errno );
+ set_retval( &tmp, 1 ); }
+ set_retval( &retval, tmp );
+ if( tmp )
+ { if( program_mode != m_test ) cleanup_and_fail( retval );
+ else ++failed_tests; }
+
+ if( delete_output_on_interrupt && one_to_one )
+ close_and_set_permissions( in_statsp );
+ if( input_filename[0] && !keep_input_files && one_to_one &&
+ ( program_mode != m_compress || volume_size == 0 ) )
+ remove( input_filename );
+ }
+ if( delete_output_on_interrupt ) close_and_set_permissions( 0 ); /* -o */
+ else if( outfd >= 0 && close( outfd ) != 0 ) /* -c */
+ {
+ show_error( "Error closing stdout", errno, false );
+ set_retval( &retval, 1 );
+ }
+ if( failed_tests > 0 && verbosity >= 1 && num_filenames > 1 )
+ fprintf( stderr, "%s: warning: %d %s failed the test.\n",
+ program_name, failed_tests,
+ ( failed_tests == 1 ) ? "file" : "files" );
+ free( output_filename );
+ free( filenames );
+ ap_free( &parser );
+ return retval;
+ }
diff --git a/testsuite/check.sh b/testsuite/check.sh
new file mode 100755
index 0000000..adda5f0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/testsuite/check.sh
@@ -0,0 +1,436 @@
+#! /bin/sh
+# check script for Clzip - LZMA lossless data compressor
+# Copyright (C) 2010-2021 Antonio Diaz Diaz.
+#
+# This script is free software: you have unlimited permission
+# to copy, distribute, and modify it.
+
+LC_ALL=C
+export LC_ALL
+objdir=`pwd`
+testdir=`cd "$1" ; pwd`
+LZIP="${objdir}"/clzip
+framework_failure() { echo "failure in testing framework" ; exit 1 ; }
+
+if [ ! -f "${LZIP}" ] || [ ! -x "${LZIP}" ] ; then
+ echo "${LZIP}: cannot execute"
+ exit 1
+fi
+
+[ -e "${LZIP}" ] 2> /dev/null ||
+ {
+ echo "$0: a POSIX shell is required to run the tests"
+ echo "Try bash -c \"$0 $1 $2\""
+ exit 1
+ }
+
+if [ -d tmp ] ; then rm -rf tmp ; fi
+mkdir tmp
+cd "${objdir}"/tmp || framework_failure
+
+cat "${testdir}"/test.txt > in || framework_failure
+in_lz="${testdir}"/test.txt.lz
+in_em="${testdir}"/test_em.txt.lz
+fox_lz="${testdir}"/fox.lz
+fail=0
+test_failed() { fail=1 ; printf " $1" ; [ -z "$2" ] || printf "($2)" ; }
+
+printf "testing clzip-%s..." "$2"
+
+"${LZIP}" -fkqm4 in
+[ $? = 1 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+[ ! -e in.lz ] || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -fkqm274 in
+[ $? = 1 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+[ ! -e in.lz ] || test_failed $LINENO
+for i in bad_size -1 0 4095 513MiB 1G 1T 1P 1E 1Z 1Y 10KB ; do
+ "${LZIP}" -fkqs $i in
+ [ $? = 1 ] || test_failed $LINENO $i
+ [ ! -e in.lz ] || test_failed $LINENO $i
+done
+"${LZIP}" -lq in
+[ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -tq in
+[ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -tq < in
+[ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -cdq in
+[ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -cdq < in
+[ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -dq -o in < "${in_lz}"
+[ $? = 1 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -dq -o in "${in_lz}"
+[ $? = 1 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -dq -o out nx_file.lz
+[ $? = 1 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+[ ! -e out ] || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -q -o out.lz nx_file
+[ $? = 1 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+[ ! -e out.lz ] || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -qf -S100k -o out in in
+[ $? = 1 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+# these are for code coverage
+"${LZIP}" -lt "${in_lz}" 2> /dev/null
+[ $? = 1 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -cdl "${in_lz}" > out 2> /dev/null
+[ $? = 1 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -cdt "${in_lz}" > out 2> /dev/null
+[ $? = 1 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -t -- nx_file.lz 2> /dev/null
+[ $? = 1 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -t "" < /dev/null 2> /dev/null
+[ $? = 1 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" --help > /dev/null || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -n1 -V > /dev/null || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -m 2> /dev/null
+[ $? = 1 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -z 2> /dev/null
+[ $? = 1 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" --bad_option 2> /dev/null
+[ $? = 1 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" --t 2> /dev/null
+[ $? = 1 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" --test=2 2> /dev/null
+[ $? = 1 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" --output= 2> /dev/null
+[ $? = 1 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" --output 2> /dev/null
+[ $? = 1 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+printf "LZIP\001-.............................." | "${LZIP}" -t 2> /dev/null
+printf "LZIP\002-.............................." | "${LZIP}" -t 2> /dev/null
+printf "LZIP\001+.............................." | "${LZIP}" -t 2> /dev/null
+
+printf "\ntesting decompression..."
+
+for i in "${in_lz}" "${in_em}" ; do
+ "${LZIP}" -lq "$i" || test_failed $LINENO "$i"
+ "${LZIP}" -t "$i" || test_failed $LINENO "$i"
+ "${LZIP}" -d "$i" -o copy || test_failed $LINENO "$i"
+ cmp in copy || test_failed $LINENO "$i"
+ "${LZIP}" -cd "$i" > copy || test_failed $LINENO "$i"
+ cmp in copy || test_failed $LINENO "$i"
+ "${LZIP}" -d "$i" -o - > copy || test_failed $LINENO "$i"
+ cmp in copy || test_failed $LINENO "$i"
+ "${LZIP}" -d < "$i" > copy || test_failed $LINENO "$i"
+ cmp in copy || test_failed $LINENO "$i"
+ rm -f copy || framework_failure
+done
+
+lines=$("${LZIP}" -tvv "${in_em}" 2>&1 | wc -l) || test_failed $LINENO
+[ "${lines}" -eq 8 ] || test_failed $LINENO "${lines}"
+
+lines=$("${LZIP}" -lvv "${in_em}" | wc -l) || test_failed $LINENO
+[ "${lines}" -eq 11 ] || test_failed $LINENO "${lines}"
+
+cat "${in_lz}" > copy.lz || framework_failure
+"${LZIP}" -dk copy.lz || test_failed $LINENO
+cmp in copy || test_failed $LINENO
+printf "to be overwritten" > copy || framework_failure
+"${LZIP}" -d copy.lz 2> /dev/null
+[ $? = 1 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -df copy.lz || test_failed $LINENO
+[ ! -e copy.lz ] || test_failed $LINENO
+cmp in copy || test_failed $LINENO
+
+rm -f copy || framework_failure
+cat "${in_lz}" > copy.lz || framework_failure
+"${LZIP}" -d -S100k copy.lz || test_failed $LINENO # ignore -S
+[ ! -e copy.lz ] || test_failed $LINENO
+cmp in copy || test_failed $LINENO
+
+printf "to be overwritten" > copy || framework_failure
+"${LZIP}" -df -o copy < "${in_lz}" || test_failed $LINENO
+cmp in copy || test_failed $LINENO
+rm -f out copy || framework_failure
+"${LZIP}" -d -o ./- "${in_lz}" || test_failed $LINENO
+cmp in ./- || test_failed $LINENO
+rm -f ./- || framework_failure
+"${LZIP}" -d -o ./- < "${in_lz}" || test_failed $LINENO
+cmp in ./- || test_failed $LINENO
+rm -f ./- || framework_failure
+
+cat "${in_lz}" > anyothername || framework_failure
+"${LZIP}" -dv - anyothername - < "${in_lz}" > copy 2> /dev/null ||
+ test_failed $LINENO
+cmp in copy || test_failed $LINENO
+cmp in anyothername.out || test_failed $LINENO
+rm -f copy anyothername.out || framework_failure
+
+"${LZIP}" -lq in "${in_lz}"
+[ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -lq nx_file.lz "${in_lz}"
+[ $? = 1 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -tq in "${in_lz}"
+[ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -tq nx_file.lz "${in_lz}"
+[ $? = 1 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -cdq in "${in_lz}" > copy
+[ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+cat copy in | cmp in - || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -cdq nx_file.lz "${in_lz}" > copy
+[ $? = 1 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+cmp in copy || test_failed $LINENO
+rm -f copy || framework_failure
+cat "${in_lz}" > copy.lz || framework_failure
+for i in 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ; do
+ printf "g" >> copy.lz || framework_failure
+ "${LZIP}" -alvv copy.lz "${in_lz}" > /dev/null 2>&1
+ [ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO $i
+ "${LZIP}" -atvvvv copy.lz "${in_lz}" 2> /dev/null
+ [ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO $i
+done
+"${LZIP}" -dq in copy.lz
+[ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+[ -e copy.lz ] || test_failed $LINENO
+[ ! -e copy ] || test_failed $LINENO
+[ ! -e in.out ] || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -dq nx_file.lz copy.lz
+[ $? = 1 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+[ ! -e copy.lz ] || test_failed $LINENO
+[ ! -e nx_file ] || test_failed $LINENO
+cmp in copy || test_failed $LINENO
+
+cat in in > in2 || framework_failure
+"${LZIP}" -lq "${in_lz}" "${in_lz}" || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -t "${in_lz}" "${in_lz}" || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -cd "${in_lz}" "${in_lz}" -o out > copy2 || test_failed $LINENO
+[ ! -e out ] || test_failed $LINENO # override -o
+cmp in2 copy2 || test_failed $LINENO
+rm -f copy2 || framework_failure
+"${LZIP}" -d "${in_lz}" "${in_lz}" -o copy2 || test_failed $LINENO
+cmp in2 copy2 || test_failed $LINENO
+rm -f copy2 || framework_failure
+
+cat "${in_lz}" "${in_lz}" > copy2.lz || framework_failure
+printf "\ngarbage" >> copy2.lz || framework_failure
+"${LZIP}" -tvvvv copy2.lz 2> /dev/null || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -alq copy2.lz
+[ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -atq copy2.lz
+[ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -atq < copy2.lz
+[ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -adkq copy2.lz
+[ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+[ ! -e copy2 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -adkq -o copy2 < copy2.lz
+[ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+[ ! -e copy2 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+printf "to be overwritten" > copy2 || framework_failure
+"${LZIP}" -df copy2.lz || test_failed $LINENO
+cmp in2 copy2 || test_failed $LINENO
+rm -f copy2 || framework_failure
+
+printf "\ntesting compression..."
+
+"${LZIP}" -c -0 in in in -S100k -o out3.lz > copy2.lz || test_failed $LINENO
+[ ! -e out3.lz ] || test_failed $LINENO # override -o and -S
+"${LZIP}" -0f in in --output=copy2.lz || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -d copy2.lz -o out2 || test_failed $LINENO
+cmp in2 out2 || test_failed $LINENO
+rm -f in2 out2 copy2.lz || framework_failure
+
+"${LZIP}" -cf "${in_lz}" > out 2> /dev/null # /dev/null is a tty on OS/2
+[ $? = 1 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -Fvvm36 -o - "${in_lz}" > out 2> /dev/null || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -cd out | "${LZIP}" -d > copy || test_failed $LINENO
+cmp in copy || test_failed $LINENO
+
+"${LZIP}" -0 -o ./- in || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -cd ./- | cmp in - || test_failed $LINENO
+rm -f ./- || framework_failure
+"${LZIP}" -0 -o ./- < in || test_failed $LINENO # add .lz
+[ ! -e ./- ] || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -cd -- -.lz | cmp in - || test_failed $LINENO
+rm -f ./-.lz || framework_failure
+
+for i in s4Ki 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ; do
+ "${LZIP}" -k -$i in || test_failed $LINENO $i
+ mv -f in.lz copy.lz || test_failed $LINENO $i
+ printf "garbage" >> copy.lz || framework_failure
+ "${LZIP}" -df copy.lz || test_failed $LINENO $i
+ cmp in copy || test_failed $LINENO $i
+
+ "${LZIP}" -$i in -c > out || test_failed $LINENO $i
+ "${LZIP}" -$i in -o o_out || test_failed $LINENO $i # don't add .lz
+ [ ! -e o_out.lz ] || test_failed $LINENO
+ cmp out o_out || test_failed $LINENO $i
+ rm -f o_out || framework_failure
+ printf "g" >> out || framework_failure
+ "${LZIP}" -cd out > copy || test_failed $LINENO $i
+ cmp in copy || test_failed $LINENO $i
+
+ "${LZIP}" -$i < in > out || test_failed $LINENO $i
+ "${LZIP}" -d < out > copy || test_failed $LINENO $i
+ cmp in copy || test_failed $LINENO $i
+
+ rm -f out || framework_failure
+ printf "to be overwritten" > out.lz || framework_failure
+ "${LZIP}" -f -$i -o out < in || test_failed $LINENO $i # add .lz
+ [ ! -e out ] || test_failed $LINENO
+ "${LZIP}" -df -o copy < out.lz || test_failed $LINENO $i
+ cmp in copy || test_failed $LINENO $i
+done
+rm -f out out.lz || framework_failure
+
+cat in in in in in in in in > in8 || framework_failure
+"${LZIP}" -1s12 -S100k in8 || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -t in800001.lz in800002.lz || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -cd in800001.lz in800002.lz | cmp in8 - || test_failed $LINENO
+[ ! -e in800003.lz ] || test_failed $LINENO
+rm -f in800001.lz in800002.lz || framework_failure
+"${LZIP}" -1s12 -S100k -o out.lz in8 || test_failed $LINENO
+# ignore -S
+"${LZIP}" -d out.lz00001.lz out.lz00002.lz -S100k -o out || test_failed $LINENO
+cmp in8 out || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -t out.lz00001.lz out.lz00002.lz || test_failed $LINENO
+[ ! -e out.lz00003.lz ] || test_failed $LINENO
+rm -f out out.lz00001.lz out.lz00002.lz || framework_failure
+"${LZIP}" -1ks4Ki -b100000 in8 || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -t in8.lz || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -cd in8.lz -o out | cmp in8 - || test_failed $LINENO # override -o
+[ ! -e out ] || test_failed $LINENO
+rm -f in8 || framework_failure
+"${LZIP}" -0 -S100k -o out < in8.lz || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -t out00001.lz out00002.lz || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -cd out00001.lz out00002.lz | cmp in8.lz - || test_failed $LINENO
+[ ! -e out00003.lz ] || test_failed $LINENO
+rm -f out00001.lz || framework_failure
+"${LZIP}" -1 -S100k -o out < in8.lz || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -t out00001.lz out00002.lz || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -cd out00001.lz out00002.lz | cmp in8.lz - || test_failed $LINENO
+[ ! -e out00003.lz ] || test_failed $LINENO
+rm -f out00001.lz out00002.lz || framework_failure
+"${LZIP}" -0 -F -S100k in8.lz || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -t in8.lz00001.lz in8.lz00002.lz || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -cd in8.lz00001.lz in8.lz00002.lz | cmp in8.lz - || test_failed $LINENO
+[ ! -e in8.lz00003.lz ] || test_failed $LINENO
+rm -f in8.lz00001.lz in8.lz00002.lz || framework_failure
+"${LZIP}" -0kF -b100k in8.lz || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -t in8.lz.lz || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -cd in8.lz.lz | cmp in8.lz - || test_failed $LINENO
+rm -f in8.lz in8.lz.lz || framework_failure
+
+printf "\ntesting bad input..."
+
+headers='LZIp LZiP LZip LzIP LzIp LziP lZIP lZIp lZiP lzIP'
+body='\001\014\000\203\377\373\377\377\300\000\000\000\000\000\000\000\000\000\000\000\000\000\000\000$\000\000\000\000\000\000\000'
+cat "${in_lz}" > int.lz
+printf "LZIP${body}" >> int.lz
+if "${LZIP}" -tq int.lz ; then
+ for header in ${headers} ; do
+ printf "${header}${body}" > int.lz # first member
+ "${LZIP}" -lq int.lz
+ [ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO ${header}
+ "${LZIP}" -tq int.lz
+ [ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO ${header}
+ "${LZIP}" -tq < int.lz
+ [ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO ${header}
+ "${LZIP}" -cdq int.lz > /dev/null
+ [ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO ${header}
+ "${LZIP}" -lq --loose-trailing int.lz
+ [ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO ${header}
+ "${LZIP}" -tq --loose-trailing int.lz
+ [ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO ${header}
+ "${LZIP}" -tq --loose-trailing < int.lz
+ [ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO ${header}
+ "${LZIP}" -cdq --loose-trailing int.lz > /dev/null
+ [ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO ${header}
+ cat "${in_lz}" > int.lz
+ printf "${header}${body}" >> int.lz # trailing data
+ "${LZIP}" -lq int.lz
+ [ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO ${header}
+ "${LZIP}" -tq int.lz
+ [ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO ${header}
+ "${LZIP}" -tq < int.lz
+ [ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO ${header}
+ "${LZIP}" -cdq int.lz > /dev/null
+ [ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO ${header}
+ "${LZIP}" -lq --loose-trailing int.lz ||
+ test_failed $LINENO ${header}
+ "${LZIP}" -t --loose-trailing int.lz ||
+ test_failed $LINENO ${header}
+ "${LZIP}" -t --loose-trailing < int.lz ||
+ test_failed $LINENO ${header}
+ "${LZIP}" -cd --loose-trailing int.lz > /dev/null ||
+ test_failed $LINENO ${header}
+ "${LZIP}" -lq --loose-trailing --trailing-error int.lz
+ [ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO ${header}
+ "${LZIP}" -tq --loose-trailing --trailing-error int.lz
+ [ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO ${header}
+ "${LZIP}" -tq --loose-trailing --trailing-error < int.lz
+ [ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO ${header}
+ "${LZIP}" -cdq --loose-trailing --trailing-error int.lz > /dev/null
+ [ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO ${header}
+ done
+else
+ printf "\nwarning: skipping header test: 'printf' does not work on your system."
+fi
+rm -f int.lz || framework_failure
+
+for i in fox_v2.lz fox_s11.lz fox_de20.lz \
+ fox_bcrc.lz fox_crc0.lz fox_das46.lz fox_mes81.lz ; do
+ "${LZIP}" -tq "${testdir}"/$i
+ [ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO $i
+done
+
+"${LZIP}" -cd "${fox_lz}" > fox || test_failed $LINENO
+for i in fox_bcrc.lz fox_crc0.lz fox_das46.lz fox_mes81.lz ; do
+ "${LZIP}" -cdq "${testdir}"/$i > out
+ [ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO $i
+ cmp fox out || test_failed $LINENO $i
+done
+rm -f fox out || framework_failure
+
+cat "${in_lz}" "${in_lz}" > in2.lz || framework_failure
+cat "${in_lz}" "${in_lz}" "${in_lz}" > in3.lz || framework_failure
+if dd if=in3.lz of=trunc.lz bs=14752 count=1 2> /dev/null &&
+ [ -e trunc.lz ] && cmp in2.lz trunc.lz > /dev/null 2>&1 ; then
+ for i in 6 20 14734 14753 14754 14755 14756 14757 14758 ; do
+ dd if=in3.lz of=trunc.lz bs=$i count=1 2> /dev/null
+ "${LZIP}" -lq trunc.lz
+ [ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO $i
+ "${LZIP}" -tq trunc.lz
+ [ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO $i
+ "${LZIP}" -tq < trunc.lz
+ [ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO $i
+ "${LZIP}" -cdq trunc.lz > out
+ [ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO $i
+ "${LZIP}" -dq < trunc.lz > out
+ [ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO $i
+ done
+else
+ printf "\nwarning: skipping truncation test: 'dd' does not work on your system."
+fi
+rm -f in2.lz in3.lz trunc.lz out || framework_failure
+
+cat "${in_lz}" > ingin.lz || framework_failure
+printf "g" >> ingin.lz || framework_failure
+cat "${in_lz}" >> ingin.lz || framework_failure
+"${LZIP}" -lq ingin.lz
+[ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -atq ingin.lz
+[ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -atq < ingin.lz
+[ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -acdq ingin.lz > out
+[ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -adq < ingin.lz > out
+[ $? = 2 ] || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -t ingin.lz || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -t < ingin.lz || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -cd ingin.lz > copy || test_failed $LINENO
+cmp in copy || test_failed $LINENO
+"${LZIP}" -d < ingin.lz > copy || test_failed $LINENO
+cmp in copy || test_failed $LINENO
+rm -f copy ingin.lz out || framework_failure
+
+echo
+if [ ${fail} = 0 ] ; then
+ echo "tests completed successfully."
+ cd "${objdir}" && rm -r tmp
+else
+ echo "tests failed."
+fi
+exit ${fail}
diff --git a/testsuite/fox.lz b/testsuite/fox.lz
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..509da82
--- /dev/null
+++ b/testsuite/fox.lz
Binary files differ
diff --git a/testsuite/fox_bcrc.lz b/testsuite/fox_bcrc.lz
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..8f6a7c4
--- /dev/null
+++ b/testsuite/fox_bcrc.lz
Binary files differ
diff --git a/testsuite/fox_crc0.lz b/testsuite/fox_crc0.lz
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..1abe926
--- /dev/null
+++ b/testsuite/fox_crc0.lz
Binary files differ
diff --git a/testsuite/fox_das46.lz b/testsuite/fox_das46.lz
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..43ed9f9
--- /dev/null
+++ b/testsuite/fox_das46.lz
Binary files differ
diff --git a/testsuite/fox_de20.lz b/testsuite/fox_de20.lz
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..10949d8
--- /dev/null
+++ b/testsuite/fox_de20.lz
Binary files differ
diff --git a/testsuite/fox_mes81.lz b/testsuite/fox_mes81.lz
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..d50ef2e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/testsuite/fox_mes81.lz
Binary files differ
diff --git a/testsuite/fox_s11.lz b/testsuite/fox_s11.lz
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..dca909c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/testsuite/fox_s11.lz
Binary files differ
diff --git a/testsuite/fox_v2.lz b/testsuite/fox_v2.lz
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..8620981
--- /dev/null
+++ b/testsuite/fox_v2.lz
Binary files differ
diff --git a/testsuite/test.txt b/testsuite/test.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..9196a3a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/testsuite/test.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,676 @@
+ GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
+ Version 2, June 1991
+
+ Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
+ 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
+ Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
+ of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
+
+ Preamble
+
+ The licenses for most software are designed to take away your
+freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public
+License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free
+software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. This
+General Public License applies to most of the Free Software
+Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to
+using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by
+the GNU Lesser General Public License instead.) You can apply it to
+your programs, too.
+
+ When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
+price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
+have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
+this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it
+if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it
+in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.
+
+ To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
+anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
+These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
+distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.
+
+ For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
+gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that
+you have. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the
+source code. And you must show them these terms so they know their
+rights.
+
+ We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and
+(2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy,
+distribute and/or modify the software.
+
+ Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain
+that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
+software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we
+want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so
+that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original
+authors' reputations.
+
+ Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software
+patents. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free
+program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the
+program proprietary. To prevent this, we have made it clear that any
+patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.
+
+ The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
+modification follow.
+
+ GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
+ TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
+
+ 0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains
+a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed
+under the terms of this General Public License. The "Program", below,
+refers to any such program or work, and a "work based on the Program"
+means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law:
+that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it,
+either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another
+language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in
+the term "modification".) Each licensee is addressed as "you".
+
+Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not
+covered by this License; they are outside its scope. The act of
+running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program
+is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the
+Program (independent of having been made by running the Program).
+Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.
+
+ 1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's
+source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you
+conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate
+copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the
+notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty;
+and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License
+along with the Program.
+
+You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and
+you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.
+
+ 2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion
+of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and
+distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1
+above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
+
+ a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices
+ stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.
+
+ b) You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in
+ whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any
+ part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third
+ parties under the terms of this License.
+
+ c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively
+ when run, you must cause it, when started running for such
+ interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an
+ announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a
+ notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide
+ a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under
+ these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this
+ License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but
+ does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on
+ the Program is not required to print an announcement.)
+
+These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If
+identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program,
+and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in
+themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those
+sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when you
+distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based
+on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of
+this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the
+entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.
+
+Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest
+your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to
+exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or
+collective works based on the Program.
+
+In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program
+with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of
+a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under
+the scope of this License.
+
+ 3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it,
+under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of
+Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
+
+ a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable
+ source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections
+ 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
+
+ b) Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three
+ years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your
+ cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete
+ machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be
+ distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium
+ customarily used for software interchange; or,
+
+ c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer
+ to distribute corresponding source code. (This alternative is
+ allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
+ received the program in object code or executable form with such
+ an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)
+
+The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for
+making modifications to it. For an executable work, complete source
+code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any
+associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to
+control compilation and installation of the executable. However, as a
+special exception, the source code distributed need not include
+anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary
+form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the
+operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component
+itself accompanies the executable.
+
+If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering
+access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent
+access to copy the source code from the same place counts as
+distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not
+compelled to copy the source along with the object code.
+
+ 4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program
+except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt
+otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is
+void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
+However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under
+this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
+parties remain in full compliance.
+
+ 5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not
+signed it. However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or
+distribute the Program or its derivative works. These actions are
+prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by
+modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the
+Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and
+all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying
+the Program or works based on it.
+
+ 6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the
+Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the
+original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to
+these terms and conditions. You may not impose any further
+restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein.
+You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to
+this License.
+
+ 7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
+infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues),
+conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
+otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
+excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot
+distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
+License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you
+may not distribute the Program at all. For example, if a patent
+license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by
+all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then
+the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to
+refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.
+
+If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under
+any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to
+apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other
+circumstances.
+
+It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
+patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any
+such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the
+integrity of the free software distribution system, which is
+implemented by public license practices. Many people have made
+generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed
+through that system in reliance on consistent application of that
+system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing
+to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot
+impose that choice.
+
+This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to
+be a consequence of the rest of this License.
+
+ 8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in
+certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the
+original copyright holder who places the Program under this License
+may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding
+those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among
+countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License incorporates
+the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
+
+ 9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions
+of the General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will
+be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
+address new problems or concerns.
+
+Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program
+specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any
+later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions
+either of that version or of any later version published by the Free
+Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of
+this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software
+Foundation.
+
+ 10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free
+programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author
+to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free
+Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes
+make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals
+of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and
+of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.
+
+ NO WARRANTY
+
+ 11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY
+FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN
+OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
+PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED
+OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
+MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS
+TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE
+PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING,
+REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
+
+ 12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
+WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
+REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES,
+INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING
+OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
+TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY
+YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER
+PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
+POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
+
+ END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
+
+ How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
+
+ If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
+possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
+free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
+
+ To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest
+to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
+convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
+the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
+
+ <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
+ Copyright (C) <year> <name of author>
+
+ This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ the Free Software Foundation, either version 2 of the License, or
+ (at your option) any later version.
+
+ This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
+ GNU General Public License for more details.
+
+ You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+
+Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
+
+If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this
+when it starts in an interactive mode:
+
+ Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) <year> <name of author>
+ Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
+ This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
+ under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.
+
+The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate
+parts of the General Public License. Of course, the commands you use may
+be called something other than `show w' and `show c'; they could even be
+mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program.
+
+You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
+school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if
+necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names:
+
+ Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program
+ `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.
+
+ <signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1989
+ Ty Coon, President of Vice
+
+This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into
+proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may
+consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the
+library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General
+Public License instead of this License.
+ GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
+ Version 2, June 1991
+
+ Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
+ 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
+ Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
+ of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
+
+ Preamble
+
+ The licenses for most software are designed to take away your
+freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public
+License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free
+software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. This
+General Public License applies to most of the Free Software
+Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to
+using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by
+the GNU Lesser General Public License instead.) You can apply it to
+your programs, too.
+
+ When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
+price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
+have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
+this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it
+if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it
+in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.
+
+ To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
+anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
+These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
+distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.
+
+ For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
+gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that
+you have. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the
+source code. And you must show them these terms so they know their
+rights.
+
+ We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and
+(2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy,
+distribute and/or modify the software.
+
+ Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain
+that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
+software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we
+want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so
+that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original
+authors' reputations.
+
+ Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software
+patents. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free
+program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the
+program proprietary. To prevent this, we have made it clear that any
+patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.
+
+ The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
+modification follow.
+
+ GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
+ TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
+
+ 0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains
+a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed
+under the terms of this General Public License. The "Program", below,
+refers to any such program or work, and a "work based on the Program"
+means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law:
+that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it,
+either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another
+language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in
+the term "modification".) Each licensee is addressed as "you".
+
+Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not
+covered by this License; they are outside its scope. The act of
+running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program
+is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the
+Program (independent of having been made by running the Program).
+Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.
+
+ 1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's
+source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you
+conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate
+copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the
+notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty;
+and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License
+along with the Program.
+
+You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and
+you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.
+
+ 2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion
+of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and
+distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1
+above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
+
+ a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices
+ stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.
+
+ b) You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in
+ whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any
+ part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third
+ parties under the terms of this License.
+
+ c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively
+ when run, you must cause it, when started running for such
+ interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an
+ announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a
+ notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide
+ a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under
+ these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this
+ License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but
+ does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on
+ the Program is not required to print an announcement.)
+
+These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If
+identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program,
+and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in
+themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those
+sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when you
+distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based
+on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of
+this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the
+entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.
+
+Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest
+your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to
+exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or
+collective works based on the Program.
+
+In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program
+with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of
+a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under
+the scope of this License.
+
+ 3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it,
+under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of
+Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
+
+ a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable
+ source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections
+ 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
+
+ b) Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three
+ years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your
+ cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete
+ machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be
+ distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium
+ customarily used for software interchange; or,
+
+ c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer
+ to distribute corresponding source code. (This alternative is
+ allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
+ received the program in object code or executable form with such
+ an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)
+
+The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for
+making modifications to it. For an executable work, complete source
+code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any
+associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to
+control compilation and installation of the executable. However, as a
+special exception, the source code distributed need not include
+anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary
+form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the
+operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component
+itself accompanies the executable.
+
+If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering
+access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent
+access to copy the source code from the same place counts as
+distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not
+compelled to copy the source along with the object code.
+
+ 4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program
+except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt
+otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is
+void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
+However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under
+this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
+parties remain in full compliance.
+
+ 5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not
+signed it. However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or
+distribute the Program or its derivative works. These actions are
+prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by
+modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the
+Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and
+all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying
+the Program or works based on it.
+
+ 6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the
+Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the
+original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to
+these terms and conditions. You may not impose any further
+restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein.
+You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to
+this License.
+
+ 7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
+infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues),
+conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
+otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
+excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot
+distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
+License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you
+may not distribute the Program at all. For example, if a patent
+license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by
+all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then
+the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to
+refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.
+
+If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under
+any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to
+apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other
+circumstances.
+
+It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
+patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any
+such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the
+integrity of the free software distribution system, which is
+implemented by public license practices. Many people have made
+generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed
+through that system in reliance on consistent application of that
+system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing
+to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot
+impose that choice.
+
+This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to
+be a consequence of the rest of this License.
+
+ 8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in
+certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the
+original copyright holder who places the Program under this License
+may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding
+those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among
+countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License incorporates
+the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
+
+ 9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions
+of the General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will
+be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
+address new problems or concerns.
+
+Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program
+specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any
+later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions
+either of that version or of any later version published by the Free
+Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of
+this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software
+Foundation.
+
+ 10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free
+programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author
+to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free
+Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes
+make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals
+of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and
+of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.
+
+ NO WARRANTY
+
+ 11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY
+FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN
+OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
+PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED
+OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
+MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS
+TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE
+PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING,
+REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
+
+ 12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
+WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
+REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES,
+INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING
+OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
+TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY
+YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER
+PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
+POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
+
+ END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
+
+ How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
+
+ If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
+possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
+free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
+
+ To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest
+to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
+convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
+the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
+
+ <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
+ Copyright (C) <year> <name of author>
+
+ This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ the Free Software Foundation, either version 2 of the License, or
+ (at your option) any later version.
+
+ This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
+ GNU General Public License for more details.
+
+ You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+
+Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
+
+If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this
+when it starts in an interactive mode:
+
+ Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) <year> <name of author>
+ Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
+ This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
+ under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.
+
+The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate
+parts of the General Public License. Of course, the commands you use may
+be called something other than `show w' and `show c'; they could even be
+mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program.
+
+You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
+school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if
+necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names:
+
+ Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program
+ `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.
+
+ <signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1989
+ Ty Coon, President of Vice
+
+This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into
+proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may
+consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the
+library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General
+Public License instead of this License.
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